Prayer To St Mary Mackillop? Top 102 Best Answers

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What is Mary MacKillop the patron saint of?

She is informally seen as a patron saint of sexual abuse victims for her role in exposing a pedophile priest. MacKillop was born in Australia to poor Scottish immigrants.

What was the motto of Mary MacKillop?

The College motto is “Faith and Courage” which reflects and honours Saint Mary MacKillop after whom the College is named.

What were Mary MacKillop’s miracles?

A 19-year-old man from Woodend, north of Melbourne, has been revealed as the so-called “back up” miracle in the canonisation of Mary MacKillop. As a boy, Jack Simpson developed multiple sclerosis, cancer and epilepsy and lost his intellectual capacity.

What 3 important qualities did Mary MacKillop have?

Patron. Mary MacKillop (the Australian people’s saint) had numerous fine and desirable qualities and characteristics; strong willed, determined, honest, generous, caring, very holy, courageous, and a person of integrity. Her patronage is Catholic Colleges.

What was saint Mary MacKillop best known for?

Mary Helen MacKillop RSJ (15 January 1842 – 8 August 1909) was an Australian religious sister who has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church, as St Mary of the Cross. Of Scottish descent, she was born in Melbourne but is best known for her activities in South Australia.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

Australian foundress and saint (1842–1909)

Mary Helen MacKillop RSJ (15 January 1842 – 8 August 1909) was an Australian nun proclaimed a saint by the Catholic Church as St Mary of the Cross. She is of Scottish descent, was born in Melbourne but is best known for her activities in South Australia. Along with Julian Tenison-Woods, she founded the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart (the Josephites), a congregation of religious sisters who founded a number of schools and charities across Australia and New Zealand, with an emphasis on education for the rural poor .

The process of having MacKillop declared a saint began in the 1920s, and she was beatified by Pope John Paul II in January 1995. Pope Benedict XVI prayed at her grave during his visit to Sydney for World Youth Day 2008 and in December 2009 confirmed the Catholic Church’s recognition of a second miracle attributed to her intercession.[3] She was canonized on October 17, 2010 during a public ceremony in St. Peter’s Square in the Vatican.[4] She is the first Australian to be recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church.[5] Mary MacKillop is the patron saint of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Brisbane.[2]

Early life and ministry[edit]

Mary Helen MacKillop was born to Alexander MacKillop and Flora MacDonald on January 15, 1842 in what is now the Melbourne suburb of Fitzroy, Victoria (then part of an area called Newtown in what was then the British colony of New South Wales).[6 ] Although she continues to call “Mary ‘, she was given the name Maria Ellen at her baptism six weeks later.[7]

MacKillop’s parents lived in Roybridge, Invernessshire, Scotland before emigrating to Australia.[8] Others on both sides of the family had previously emigrated. MacKillop visited the village in the 1870s, where the local St Margaret’s Catholic Church now has a shrine to her.

MacKillop’s father, Alexander MacKillop, was born in Perthshire.[10] At the age of twelve he began his priestly studies and two years later went to Scots College in Rome; He also studied at Blairs College in Kincardineshire but left at the age of 29, just before he was due to be ordained. He emigrated to Australia, arriving in Sydney in 1838.[6] MacKillop’s mother, Flora MacDonald, born in Fort William, had left Scotland and arrived in Melbourne in 1840.[6] Her father and mother were married in Melbourne on July 14, 1840. MacKillop was the eldest of their eight children. Her younger siblings were Margaret (“Maggie”, 1843-1872), John (1845-1867), Annie (1848-1929), Alexandrina (“Lexie”, 1850-1882), Donald (1853-1925), Alick (the died aged 11 months) and Peter (1857–1878).[6] Donald became a Jesuit priest and worked among the Aborigines in the Northern Territory. Lexie became a member of the Good Shepherd Sisters in Melbourne.[11]

MacKillop was raised at private schools and by her father. She received her first communion on August 15, 1850 at the age of nine. In February 1851 Alexander MacKillop left his family, having mortgaged the farm and their livelihood, and embarked on a journey to Scotland of about 17 months. All his life he was a loving father and husband, but not a successful farmer or prospector. Consequently, the family faced many difficulties.[11]

MacKillop began working as a clerk in a stationery shop in Melbourne at the age of 16.[6] In order to provide for her needy family, in 1860 she took a job as governess[12] on the estate of her aunt and uncle Alexander and Margaret MacKillop Cameron in Penola, South Australia, where she was to care for and educate their children.[ 6] She was already keen to help the poor whenever possible and involved the other farm children on the Cameron estate as well. This brought her into contact with Father Julian Tenison-Woods, who had been parish priest in the South East since his ordination in 1857 after completing his studies at Sevenhill.[13]

MacKillop stayed with the Camerons for two years before taking a job teaching children in Portland, Victoria, in 1862. She later taught at the Portland School, and after opening her own boarding school, Bay View House Seminary for Young Ladies, now Bayview College, in 1864[14], the rest of her family joined them.

Founding of school and religious community

In 1866 Julian Tenison-Woods invited MacKillop and her sisters Annie and Lexie to come to Penola and open a Catholic school.[6] Woods was appointed director of education and co-founded a school with MacKillop, which they opened in a stable there. After renovations by their brother, the MacKillops began teaching more than 50 children.[15][16] At this time, MacKillop made a declaration of her devotion to God and began wearing black.[17]

On November 21, 1866, the feast day of the Presentation of Mary, several other women joined MacKillop and her sisters. MacKillop took the religious name “Sister Mary of the Cross” and she and Lexie began wearing simple religious robes. The small group began calling themselves the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart[6] and moved to a new house in Grote Street, Adelaide. There they founded a new school at the request of Bishop Laurence Sheil OFM.[12]

The “rule of life” developed by Woods and MacKillop for the community emphasized poverty, a dependence on divine providence, lack of ownership of personal possessions, belief that God would provide, and a willingness to go where the need is .[6] The Rule of Life was approved by Bishop Sheil. By the end of 1867, ten more women had joined the Josephites, adopting a plain brown habit. Because of the color of their clothing and their name, the Josephite Sisters became colloquially known as the “Brown Joeys.”[17]

Expansion of the Sisters of St Joseph[edit]

Mary MacKillop Chapel in North Sydney, which contains MacKillop’s grave

In an attempt to provide an education to all poor, particularly in rural areas, a school was opened in Yankalilla, South Australia, in October 1867. By the end of 1869 more than 70 members of the Sisters of St Joseph were teaching children in 21 schools in Adelaide and the countryside. MacKillop and her Josephites were also involved in an orphanage; neglected children; girl in danger; the old poor; a reformatory (in Johnstown, near Kapunda); and a home for the elderly and terminally ill.[18] In general, the Josephite Sisters were willing to follow farmers, railroad workers, and miners into the remote outback and live as they did.

In December 1869, MacKillop and several other sisters traveled to Brisbane to found the Order in Queensland.[16] They were stationed at Kangaroo Point and took the ferry or rowed across the Brisbane River to attend mass at St Stephen’s Cathedral. Two years later she was in Port Augusta, South Australia for the same reason. The Josephite congregation expanded rapidly and by 1871 there were 130 sisters working in more than 40 schools and charities across South Australia and Queensland.[18]

MacKillop clashed with Brisbane’s Roman Catholic Bishop James Quinn over control of the many schools she founded; MacKillop believed the sisters should control the schools while Quinn believed the diocese should control them. By 1879, relations between them had deteriorated to the point that Quinn ordered the sisters to leave his diocese. Despite protests from the laity, Quinn was resolute, and MacKillop and her Josephite sisters had left the diocese by the mid-1880s, while other Catholic orders took over running their schools. When the Diocese of Rockhampton was cut from the Diocese of Brisbane on December 29, 1882, this allowed MacKillop and her sisters to return to Queensland, where they established a school in Clermont and then elsewhere within the new diocese.[19]

1881 Elzear Torreggiani, then Bishop of Armidale and a Capuchin, who had worked both in North Wales at Pantasaph and in London at Peckham before being ordained in London in 1879 for the Diocese of Armidale; founded Mother Mary MacKillop’s Sisters of St Joseph at Tenterfield and defended her central government power at the Plenary Council of 1885[20].

While Torreggiani was Bishop of Armidale, the Sisters of St Joseph established foundations at Tenterfield (1880), Inverell (1880), Narrabri (1882), Glen Innes (1883), Uralla (1886), Quirindi (1888), Hillgrove (1889) . ), Tingha (1890), Bingara (1902), Walgett (1902), Warialda (1904), and Manilla (1904).[22] Subsequently, the sisters formed Bundarra (1908), Barraba (1910), Boggabri (1911), Tamworth West (1919), Dungowan (1930), Tamworth South (1954), Lightning Ridge (1980), Mungindi (1995) and Attunga (1995). ). Wee Waa and Werris Creek were also “Motor Mission” centers.[23]

Excommunication[ edit ]

Bishop Sheil spent less than two years of his episcopate in Adelaide, and his absence and ill health left the diocese virtually without clear leadership for much of his tenure. This led to bitter divisions within the clergy and disunity in the lay community. After the founding of the Josephites, Sheil appointed Woods Director General for Catholic Education.[24] Woods came into conflict with some clergymen over educational issues, and the local clergy began a campaign to discredit the Josephites. In addition to allegations of financial incompetence, rumors also circulated that MacKillop had a drinking problem. A 2010 investigation by Rev. Paul Gardiner, Chaplain of the Mary MacKillop Penola Center found no evidence to support these claims.[17] In fact, it was widely known that she drank alcohol on doctor’s orders to relieve symptoms of dysmenorrhea, which often left her bedridden for days.

Father Charles Horan OFM met with Sheil on September 21, 1871 and persuaded him that the Josephite constitution should be changed so that Josephite nuns could be made homeless; The following day, when MacKillop appeared not to comply with the request, Sheil excommunicated her, citing disobedience as the reason. Open reporting in the Catholic newspaper The Irish Harp and Farmers’ Herald[27] earned its editor, C.J. Fox, ostracism and expulsion from the Catholic Association of which he was president.[28] Although the Josephites were not dissolved, most of their schools were closed as a result of this action.[25] Forbidden to have contact with anyone in the church, MacKillop was granted rent-free use of two houses in Flinders Street, Adelaide, by the prominent Jewish merchant Emanuel Solomon[29] and was also protected by Jesuit priests. Some of the sisters chose to remain under diocesan control and became popularly known as the “Black Joeys”.

On his deathbed, Sheil ordered Horan to have MacKillop’s excommunication lifted.[17] On February 21, 1872, he met her on his way to Willunga and acquitted her in Morphett Vale church.[31] An episcopal commission later exonerated them completely.

Rome [ edit ]

After acquiring the motherhouse in Kensington in 1872, MacKillop made preparations to leave for Rome to have the Sisters of St. Joseph’s “Rule of Life” officially approved.

MacKillop traveled to Rome in 1873 to seek papal approval for the religious congregation and was approved in her work by Pope Pius IX. encouraged.[32] The authorities in Rome changed the way of life of the Josephite Sisters in relation to their commitment to poverty[18] and declared that the Superior General and her Council were the authorities responsible for the Congregation.[31] They assured MacKillop that the church and its “rule of life” would be finally approved after a trial period.[32] The resulting changes to the “Rule of Life” regarding ownership of property caused a rift between MacKillop and Woods, who felt that the revised document endangered the ideal of promised poverty and accused MacKillop of not using the document in its original form to have accepted Form.[25][31] Prior to Woods’ death on October 7, 1889, he and MacKillop were personally reconciled, but he did not renew his involvement in the community.

While in Europe, MacKillop traveled widely to observe parenting practices.[25]

During this time, the Josephites expanded their activities into New South Wales and New Zealand. MacKillop moved from Adelaide to Sydney in 1883 on the orders of Bishop Reynolds.[18]

Return from Rome[ edit ]

When MacKillop returned to Australia in January 1875 after an absence of almost two years, she brought with her the approval of Rome for her sisters and their work, materials for their school, books for the monastery library, several priests and, most importantly, 15 new Josephites from Ireland. Despite her success, she still faced opposition from priests and several bishops. This did not change even after her unanimous election as Superior General in March 1875.[31]

The Josephites were unusual among the ministries of the Catholic Church in two respects. First, the sisters lived in community rather than in convents. Second, the congregation’s constitutions required administration by a superior general elected from the congregation rather than by the bishop, which was unusual in his day. The problems that caused friction, however, were that the Josephites refused to accept government funding, did not teach instrumental music (then considered by the church to be an essential part of education), and were unwilling to teach girls from wealthier families. This structure resulted in the sisters being forced to leave Bathurst in 1876 and Queensland in 1880 as local bishops refused to accept this working structure.

Despite all the difficulties, the congregation grew. By 1877 it operated more than 40 schools in and around Adelaide, with many others in Queensland and New South Wales. With the help of Benson, Barr Smith, the Baker family, Emanuel Solomon, and other non-Catholics, the Josephites, with MacKillop as their leader and superior general, were able to continue religious and other good works, including visiting prisoners in prison.

After the appointment of Roger Vaughan as Archbishop of Sydney in 1877, life became a little easier for MacKillop and her sisters. By his death in 1882 Rev. Joseph Tappeiner had given MacKillop his solid support, and by 1883 she also had the support of Bishop Reynolds of Adelaide.

After Vaughan’s death in 1883, Patrick Francis Moran became Archbishop. Though slightly more pro-Josephite, he removed MacKillop as Superior General and replaced her with Bernard Walsh.[32][18][31]

Pope Leo XIII gave the Josephites official recognition as a Sydney-based congregation in 1885.[31]

On May 31, 1886, Mary MacKillop’s mother, Flora MacKillop, traveled from Melbourne to Sydney on the SS Ly-ee-Moon to visit Mary and another daughter, who was also a nun. The ship ran onto a reef near the Green Cape Lighthouse. Flora died along with 70 others.[36]

Pope Leo XIII gave the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart final approval in 1888.[32]

Although still living on alms, the Josephite Sisters had been very successful. In South Australia they had schools in many rural towns including Willunga, Willochra, Yarcowie, Mintaro, Auburn, Jamestown, Laura, Sevenhill, Quorn, Spalding, Georgetown, Robe, Pekina, Appila and a few others. MacKillop continued her work for the Josephites in Sydney, trying to serve the people of South Australia as best she could. In 1883 the order was successfully founded in Temuka, New Zealand, where MacKillop stayed for over a year.[37] It was also established in the Australian state of Victoria in 1889. [citation required]

Throughout these years, MacKillop assisted Mother Bernhard in leading the Sisters of St. Joseph. She wrote letters of support, advice and encouragement or just to keep in touch. In 1896 MacKillop was back in South Australia, visiting fellow sisters in Port Augusta, Burra, Pekina, Kapunda, Jamestown and Gladstone. That same year she traveled to New Zealand again, spending several months in Port Chalmers and Arrowtown in Otago. During her time in New Zealand with the Sisters of St Joseph, a school was established at Arrowtown, near Queenstown, South Island. The small yellow cottage now known as Mary MacKillop Cottage is in the grounds of St Patrick’s Church and was originally built as a miner’s cottage in the 1870’s. It was purchased by the church and incorporated into the church school in 1882, and in 1897 MacKillop had the cottage and part of the school converted into a convent for the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart who worked in New Zealand and Australia.

In 1897 Bishop Maher of Port Augusta arranged for the Sisters of St Joseph to take over St Anacletus Catholic Day School in Petersburg (now Peterborough).

Saint Mary MacKillop, 1890

MacKillop founded a convent and base for the Sisters of St. Joseph on January 16, 1897 in Petersburg. “On January 16, 1897, the founder of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart, Mother Mary of the Cross,[25] came here in Petersburg to take over the school. She was accompanied by sisters Benizi (who was put in charge of the school), M. Joseph, Clotilde and Aloysius Joseph. They were met at the station by the priest Norton, who took them to the New Blessed Monastery purchased for them on Railway Terrace.”[39] The property at 40 Railway Terrace is affixed by a plaque placed by the Catholic Diocese of Peterborough was identified as a monastery.[39]

After the death of Mother Bernard, MacKillop was again unopposed as Superior General in 1899,[32] a position she held until her own death. In the later years of her life, she had many problems with her health, which continued to deteriorate. She suffered from rheumatism and was paralyzed on the right side after a stroke in 1902 in Auckland, New Zealand. For seven years she was confined to a wheelchair to get around, but her speech and wits were as good as ever and her letter-writing had continued unabated after she learned to write with her left hand. Even after the stroke, the Josephite Sisters had enough faith in her to re-elect her in 1905.

death [edit]

Life size bronze statue of St Mary Mackillop by sculptor Linda Klarfeld at the Australian Catholic University in North Sydney

MacKillop died at the Josephite Convent in North Sydney on August 8, 1909.[12] The Archbishop of Sydney, Cardinal Moran, said: “I look upon this day as a saint’s deathbed assist.”[17] She was buried in Gore Hill Cemetery, a few miles up the Pacific Highway from North Sydney.

After MacKillop’s funeral, people constantly took dirt around their grave. Her remains were then exhumed and transferred to a vault in front of the Altar of the Virgin Mary in the newly constructed Memorial Chapel in Mount Street, North Sydney on 27 January 1914.[40] The vault was a gift from Joanna Barr Smith, a lifelong friend and adoring Presbyterian.

Canonization and commemoration[ edit ]

In 1925, the Mother Superior of the Sisters of St Joseph, Mother Laurence, initiated the process to have MacKillop declared a saint, and Michael Kelly, Archbishop of Sydney, established a tribunal to advance the process. The process for MacKillop’s beatification began in 1926, was interrupted in 1931, but resumed in April 1951 and concluded in September of the same year. After several years of hearings, a thorough examination of MacKillop’s writings, and a delay of 23 years, the first phase of the investigation was completed in 1973.[41] A longtime and prominent non-Catholic supporter of her cause was poet-bookseller Max Harris. After further research, MacKillop’s “heroic virtue” was declared in 1992. That same year, the Church affirmed belief that Veronica Hopson, who appeared to have died of leukemia in 1961, was healed through prayers for MacKillop’s intercession; MacKillop was beatified by Pope John Paul II on January 19, 1995.[32] On the occasion of the beatification, the Croatian-Australian artist Charles Billich was commissioned to paint the official memorial for MacKillop.[42]

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On December 19, 2009, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued a papal decree officially recognizing a second miracle, the complete and permanent healing of Kathleen Evans[43] from inoperable lung and secondary brain cancer in the 1990s. [44] Kathleen Evans published The Story Behind Saint Mary MacKillop’s Second Miracle with Penguin Books in 2012.[45] Her canonization was announced on February 19, 2010 and subsequently took place on October 17, 2010.[46] This made her the first Australian to be recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church.[5]

Recognition [ edit ]

In the week leading up to her canonization, the Australian federal government announced that it would protect the use of MacKillop’s name for commercial purposes.[47] According to a statement from the Office of the Prime Minister of Australia, Julia Gillard, the only other Australian whose name enjoys similar protection is Australian cricket legend Sir Donald Bradman.[48] Australia Post issued an official postage stamp to recognize MacKillop’s canonization.[49]

The Rose of Mary MacKillop

An estimated 8,000 Australians were in Vatican City to witness the ceremony.[50] The Vatican Museums held an exhibition of Aboriginal art entitled “Rituals of Life” to commemorate the occasion.[51] The exhibit contained 300 artifacts that were on display for the first time since 1925.[52]

MacKillop is commemorated in a variety of ways, particularly in Australia. Things named after her include the MacKillop constituency in South Australia and several MacKillop colleges. In 1985 the Sisters of St Joseph approached one of Australia’s leading rose breeders to develop the Mary MacKillop Rose.[53] MacKillop was the subject of the first $1 coin series Inspirational Australians, issued by the Royal Australian Mint in 2008.[54]

Several Australian composers have written sacred music to celebrate MacKillop. In 1994, on the occasion of her beatification, the MacKillop Secretariat commissioned eight composers to write some of the first liturgical hymns to MacKillop. These were published by the Secretariat in 1995 as an anthology entitled If I Could Tell The Love of God.[55] Hymns used specifically in celebrations of Saint Mary of the Cross include A Saint for Today and Mary MacKillop, Woman of Australia by Josephite Sister Margaret Cusack[56] and If I Could Tell The Love of God, In Love God Leads Us and Psalm 103 by Jesuit priest Christopher Willcock.[57]

In 2009 Nicholas Buc was commissioned by the Shire of Glenelg to write an hour-long cantata mass to commemorate the centenary of MacKillop’s death.[58] It was first performed by the Royal Melbourne Philharmonic in Portland, Victoria.[59] The Mass by Mary McKillop is a setting for congregational chant composed by Joshua Cowie.[60][61]

In popular culture[edit]

MacKillop is also the subject of several artistic productions including

1994 film Mary directed by Kay Pavlou and starring Lucy Bell as MacKillop; [62] released on DVD as Mary: The Mary MacKillop Story

, directed by Kay Pavlou and starring Lucy Bell as MacKillop; released on DVD as Her Holiness, a play by Justin Fleming; [63]

, a play by Justin Fleming; MacKillop, a dramatic musical created by Victorian composer Xavier Brouwer [64] and first performed for pilgrims at World Youth Day 2008 in Melbourne. [65]

, a dramatic musical created by Victorian composer Xavier Brouwer and first performed for pilgrims at World Youth Day 2008 in Melbourne. Novelist Pamela Freeman’s The Black Dress is a fictional biography about MacKillop’s childhood and young adulthood. [66]

is a fictional biography about MacKillop’s childhood and young adulthood. In the Center of the Light by R.Johns seeded at Explorations (La Mama) had a Victorian regional tour, was invited to be read in part with international and Indian actors at WPI Mumbai and was later performed at 12th Night Theater Brisbane, 2010, commercially produced An excerpt of the play was published in the anthology Scenes from a Diverse World (published by the International Center for Women Playwrights, U.S.A.). The play about MacKillop was written with the permission and support of the Josephite Sisters in East Melbourne and is available from Australianplays. org

In 2000, the State Transit Authority named a SuperCat ferry in Sydney Harbor after MacKillop. In 2008, a railway bridge in Adelaide was named the Mary MacKillop Bridge.[67]

See also[edit]


Why is Mary the Mother of God given so many titles?

Historical and cultural context. The relatively large number of titles given to Mary may be explained in several ways. Some titles grew due to geographic and cultural reasons, e.g., through the veneration of specific icons. Others were related to Marian apparitions.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

Many descriptions for Mary, the mother of Jesus

Mary, the mother of Jesus in Christianity, is known by many different titles (Blessed Mother, Virgin Mary, Mother of God, Our Lady, Holy Virgin), epithets (Star of the Sea, Queen of Heaven, Cause of Our Joy), invocations (Panagia, Mother of Mercy, God bearer Theotokos) and several names linked to places (Our Lady of Loreto, Our Lady of Fátima).

All of these descriptions refer to the same woman named Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ (in the New Testament). They are used differently by Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and some Anglicans. (Note: Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas and Mary Salome are different women.)

Some descriptions of Mary are actually titles of a dogmatic nature, while others are invocations. Other descriptions are poetic or allegorical, or have less or no canonical status, but are part of popular piety and are accepted to varying degrees by ecclesiastical authorities. Another class of titles refers to depictions of Mary in Catholic Marian art and in art in general. A rich variety of Marian titles are also used in musical settings of pieces dedicated to her.[1]

Historical and cultural context[ edit ]

The relatively large number of titles bestowed upon Mary can be explained in a number of ways.[2] Some titles grew for geographic and cultural reasons, e.g. B. through the worship of certain icons. Others were related to Marian apparitions.

Mary’s intercession is asked for a wide range of human needs in different situations. This has led to the formulation of many of their titles (good advice, helping the sick, etc.). In addition, meditations and devotions on various aspects of Mary’s role in Jesus’ life have led to other titles, such as Our Lady of Sorrows.[3] Still other titles were derived from dogmas and teachings, such as the Assumption, the Assumption, and the Immaculate Conception.

The devotion to Mary was consolidated in 431, when at the Council of Ephesus the description of Theotokos, or Mary, the bearer (or mother) of God, became dogma. Thereafter, Marian devotion centered on the subtle and complex relationship between Mary, Jesus and the Church began to flourish, first in the East and later in the West.

The Reformation diminished Mary’s role in many parts of Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Council of Trent and the Counter-Reformation intensified Marian devotion among Catholics. At about the same time, Mary became an instrument of evangelization in America and parts of Asia and Africa, e.g. He was shocked by reported apparitions to Our Lady of Guadalupe, which led to large numbers of conversions to Christianity in Mexico.

After the Reformation, Baroque Marian literature experienced unprecedented growth with over 500 Mariological writings in the 17th century alone.[4] During the Enlightenment, the emphasis on scientific advancement and rationalism often put Catholic theology and Mariology on the defensive later in the 18th century. Books like The Glories of Mary by Alphonsus Liguori were written in defense of the cult of Mary.

Dogmatic titles[ edit ]

In the Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, the Assumption of Mary can be translated as the Dormition of the Mother of God; It is an important feast day that is not based on any biblical canon but is affirmed by tradition.

Early titles of Mary[ edit ]

Madonna and Child among Ethiopian Saints, Ethiopia mid-17th century

“Our Lady” is a common title given to Mary as a mark of respect and honor. It is called “Notre Dame” in French and “Nuestra Señora” in Spanish.[9]

Pope acts[ edit ]

Descriptive titles of Mary related to fine art[edit]

Devotional title[ edit ]

In the litanies of Loreto, Mary’s prayers are invoked under more than fifty different titles, such as “Most Pure Mother,” “Clever Virgin,” and “Cause of Our Joy.”[28]

Other devotional titles are:

Theological Mariology

With the exception of Jesus Christ, who is believed to have a dual human and divine nature (Dyophysitism), the Blessed Virgin Mary is considered by many Christians to be the only human being about whom there is dogma. It is associated with four different dogmas and numerous Marian titles. Christian invocations, titles and art testify to the prominent role she has in parts of Christianity in salvation history and program, although this is not shared by many (mainly Reformed) Christian churches.

In the Ave Maria prayer, she is addressed as “full of grace” by Archangel Gabriel of the Annunciation, speaking in the name of God. The Nicene Creed declares that Jesus “was made flesh and became man by the Holy Spirit and by the Virgin Mary.” This has led to the description “Brides of the Holy Spirit”.

Tradition has it that the Virgin Mary was anointed by the Holy Spirit, making her equal to the anointing of the kings, prophets, judges and high priests of Israel, as Jesus Christ said. This in turn opens the way to titles like:

Church advocates (like the judges of Israel)

Mediatrix of all graces [29] (like a high priest of Israel),

(like a high priest of Israel), Queen of Angels (like the kings of Israel): The paintings of the Coronation of the Virgin represent the hierarchy of God’s angels as they begin to minister forever after Mary has accepted, Mother of God to become .

Marian apparitions are said to testify to Mary’s prophetic gift.

In the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches, the Virgin Mary is worshiped in a special form, known in Greek as hyperdulia, secondary to the worship reserved for the Triune God. She is venerated and honored in this way because no other being – angelic or human – has greater power than Mary to intercede with God for the distribution of grace to His children.

Titles associated with devotional images [ edit ]

Titles of images related to epithets include:

Titles of images related to places of worship include:

Titles associated with appearances [ edit ]

Our Lady of the Rosary, Lourdes

Latin America[ edit ]

A number of Marian titles found in Latin America refer to cultic images of her depicted in iconography and identified with a specific, pre-existing title adapted to a specific location. Our Lady of Luján in Argentina refers to a small terracotta effigy made in Brazil and sent to Argentina in May 1630. His appearance seems to have been inspired by Murillo’s Immaculata. Our Lady of Copacabana (Bolivia): is a figure related to the devotion to Mary under the title “Most Holy Virgin de la Candelaria, Our Lady of Copacabana”. The approximately 1.20 m high statue was made by Francisco Tito Yupanqui around 1583 and wears the colors and dress of an Inca princess.[32]

Titles in the Eastern Orthodox Church[edit]

Theotokos means “god bearer” and is translated as “God’s Mother”. This title was given to Mary at the Third Ecumenical Council in Ephesus in AD 431 (cf. Luke 1:43).[35]

Title of Mary in Islam[ edit ]

The Qur’an refers to Mary (Arabic: مريم, romanized: Maryam) with the following titles:

Ma’suma – “She who never sinned”

– “She who never sinned” Mustafia – “She who is chosen”

– “She who is chosen” Nur – “Light”. She was also called Umm Nur (“mother of one who was light”), in reference to ‘Isa

– “light”. She was also named in reference to ‘Isa Qānitah (“mother of one who was light”) – the term implies constant submission to Allah as well as being absorbed in prayer and invocation.

– The term implies constant submission to Allah, as well as deepening in prayer and invocation. Rāki’ah – “The one who bows down in worship to Allah”

– “Who bows down to Allah in worship” Sa’imah – “The one who fasts”

– “She who fasts” Sājidah – “She who prostrates in worship to Allah”

– “She who prostrates herself in worship before Allah” Siddiqah – “She who accepts it as true”, “She who has faith” or “She who sincerely and fully believes”

– “She who accepts as true”, “She who has faith” or “She who sincerely and perfectly believes” Tāhirah – “She who has been purified”

See also[edit]


How did St Mary MacKillop show courage?

‘She faced hard times and adversity over the years, from her family’s poverty to the loss of many loved ones throughout her life. She carried on, strengthened by her faith and her determination to serve others. She worked hard, travelled widely, and spoke courageously in love.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

This Saturday, October 17, 2020 marks the 10th anniversary of the canonization of Saint Mary MacKillop at St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, who will be declared Australia’s first canonized saint. Pope Benedict XVI spoke to tens of thousands gathered in St. Peter’s Square. About 9000 Australians traveled to celebrate the occasion.

It was a meaningful moment for Catholic, Christian and secular Australians to celebrate the values ​​at the core of what it means to be Australian and their witness to the sacred in everyday life. Ten years later, the Sisters of Saint Joseph invite the Australian community to take this opportunity to reflect on what the canonization of Saint Mary MacKillop meant for Australians then and what it means for us today.

To celebrate the 10th anniversary of Saint Mary MacKillop’s canonization and the wonderful life and legacy she bequeathed, the Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart are pleased to remember her with memorial prayers, videos and a worldwide vigil in her honor .

The theme chosen for this celebration is ‘Take Fresh Courage’ which inspires all Australians to take courage and keep hope alive as Mary has done throughout her life. This theme, chosen against the backdrop of the many challenges Australians faced in 2020, comes from a letter from St Mary MacKillop in 1877.

On October 16, 2020 at 8:00pm AEST, the Sisters of Saint Joseph will host the Courage Hour, a global vigil of deep peace, prayer and reflection. The sisters invite all who would like to attend to join the vigil online to celebrate Mary’s life and follow her example to “Take Courage.”

Sister Monica Cavanagh, congregational leader of the Sisters of Saint Joseph, said: “The 10th anniversary of Saint Mary MacKillop’s canonization is an opportunity for us to reflect on Mary’s legacy and the valuable lessons her life experiences have taught us.

“She has faced difficult times and adversities over the years, from the poverty of her family to the loss of many loved ones throughout her life. She continued, strengthened by her faith and determination to serve others. She worked hard, traveled far and spoke boldly in love. She was a woman of strong convictions and great energy who valued friendship and family. Mary always had a place in her heart for those most challenged by life’s circumstances.

“I am proud that the Sisters of Saint Joseph continue to follow in their footsteps and that people around the world are inspired by their example.

10 years after the day Pope Benedict XVI. Declaring her a saint, people everywhere are invited to take this moment to remember Mary’s faith, her tenacity and devotion to others, and her inspiration to “have renewed courage.”

Does Mary MacKillop have a symbol?

The Cross is rendered in gold and is placed in the superior position above the stylised ‘M’ and twin peaks below. Behind the Cross is the symbol associated with the religious order founded by Mary MacKillop, The Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College


Our college logo includes elements that reflect our mission, location and our patron, St. Mary MacKillop.

The cross identifies us as a Christian community that draws our ethos and energy from Jesus Christ and His gospel. Our Patroness, St. Mary MacKillop, took the religious name Mary of the Cross. Rendered in gold, the cross is in the superior position above the stylized “M” and the twin peaks below.

Behind the cross is the symbol of the order founded by Mary MacKillop, the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart.

Behind the cross is the symbol of the order founded by Mary MacKillop, the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart. The “twin peaks” refer to important geographic landmarks surrounding the school’s Mount Peter Valley campus: Mount Peter itself, rising 5 km to the south; and nearby, a little further south, the striking facade of the Walsh Pyramid.

The stylized gold “M” covering the mountain motif clearly references MacKillop.

The Southern Cross refers to our location and St Mary MacKillop as an Australian and the work of her sisters in Australia and New Zealand – under the Southern Cross

The swirling “journey” motif with its energetic curves and “stones” fills the lower part of the design. It refers to the spiritual journey as a key motif of the Gospel and Catholic tradition. The Good News revealed in Jesus Christ finds its fullest expression in the Easter event and is carried to all places and at all times by the community of Jesus’ disciples. Journey through Country is a fundamental experience in the spirituality of the first people and enduring owners of this land, the Gimuy Walubara Yidinji Nation. The college campus also borders Stoney Creek, which sees tropical currents from the nearby mountains across the plain and out to sea.

The college motto wraps around the base of the logo.


Inspiring hearts, minds and spirits

Our college motto relates primarily to the presence and work of the Holy Spirit. The Spirit of God has been at work since the beginning of creation, shaping and shaping all things according to the divine will. The pinnacle of creation is humanity; Women and men created in God’s image and likeness.

God’s Holy Spirit has been ever present throughout human history, speaking God’s Word of love and salvation in the hearts, minds and souls of men. By the power of the Holy Spirit, God’s Word became flesh in the person of Jesus Christ. The presence and mission of Christ continues in every place and time through the community of disciples, the church.

MacKillop Catholic College shares the Church’s mission to make God’s love come true for all. The Spirit of God works in forming hearts, minds and spirits through our work in Catholic education. We do this in the belief and knowledge that our holistic education shapes and shapes our students, their families and our employees to grow into the people God created us to be.

We draw inspiration and courage from the example of St. Mary MacKillop. Her deep personal experience of God’s love and providence led her to advocate for young Australians who had little or no access to education. Her legacy is a testament to the power of education to inspire the heart, mind and spirit.

What was Mary MacKillop’s 2nd miracle?

The Vatican ultimately decided on Maitland woman Kathleen Evans, who was cured of inoperable lung cancer in 1994, as Mother Mary’s second and final miracle. But Fr Catterall said he did not need recognition to confirm what he knew in his heart.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

Father David Catterall may not have been declared Mary MacKillop’s all-important second miracle, but he knows his life was saved by Australia’s first saint. While the Catholic priest of Illawarra’s battle with breast cancer in 2000 is well known, the Mercury can now reveal that he was miraculously examined after being cured of bone cancer in 2005. The Vatican finally chose Kathleen Evans of Maitland, who was cured of inoperable lung cancer in 1994, as Mother Mary’s second and final miracle. But Father Catterall said he didn’t need recognition to confirm what he knew in his heart. “People say to me, ‘Do you think it was a miracle for Mary MacKillop?’ and I say that for me it was my own little miracle,” said Father Catterall, the vicar of St Paul’s Albion Park is real connection.” Father Catterall was only 27 years old when he was diagnosed with breast cancer and had one underwent a radical mastectomy followed by eight months of chemotherapy and radiation. The concern was that the breast cancer had come back and invaded my bones,” he said. Prior to a surgical biopsy, Father Catterall was visited by a fellow priest who loaned him a piece of wood from Mary MacKillop’s original coffin. The coffin had been replaced when she was reburied five years after her death in 1909 at the Josephite motherhouse in North Sydney. Father Catterall said he had an affection for the Josephites who had lived in his hometown of Albion Park for more than a century my name on the novena list, I prayed for the intercession of Blessed Mary MacKillop. “I went into surgery and had two ribs removed… When I came out, the surgeon said, ‘I don’t know what happened, but it’s just amazing, it’s not cancerous.'” Father Catterall The Wollongong-based oncologist Professor Phil Clingan described the trend reversal as “extremely rare”. “It wasn’t what we expected. We expected to find cancer when we did the biopsy. “In 99 percent of the cases, when the rib is abnormal on the bone scan, the biopsy turns out to be cancer.” Forced by the development, the Josephites asked Father Catterall to officially document that his case was being investigated as the second miracle of Mother Mary . Ultimately, the case was not selected to be referred to the Vatican, but the Sisters presented him with his own precious 10cm x 20cm piece of Mother Mary’s coffin nonetheless. “People have different ideas about miracles. For me it’s not so much about a physical change, it’s about seeing a situation with different eyes, with eyes of hope and courage,” Father Catterall said. A nine-day festival of activities celebrating the life and influence of Mary MacKillop begins next Thursday in St. Paul’s. Fr. Catterall will also be leading a group of pilgrims to Rome for her canonization on October 17 f or Mary’s party. And I think that’s true.”

What is meant by Mary’s perpetual virginity?

The perpetual virginity of Mary is a Christian doctrine that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was a virgin before, during and after the birth of Christ. In Western Christianity, the Catholic Church adheres to the doctrine, as do some Lutherans, Anglicans, Reformed, and other Protestants.

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MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

One of the four Marian dogmas

The title Aeiparthenos (Eternal Virgin) is frequently used in the Icon of the Eternal Virgin Mary by Vladimir Eleusa. The title (Forever Virgin) is widely used in Orthodox liturgy, and icons depict her with three stars on her shoulders and forehead, symbolizing her triple virginity.

The perpetual virginity of Mary is a Christian teaching that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was a virgin before, during, and after Christ’s birth. In Western Christianity, the Catholic Church adheres to the doctrine, as do some Lutherans, Anglicans, Reformed, and other Protestants.[3][4][5][6] Shenouda III, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church, affirmed the doctrine,[8] and the Eastern Orthodox Churches recognize Mary as Aeiparthenos, meaning “ever-virgin”. It is one of the four Marian dogmas of the Catholic Church. Most modern Nonconformist Protestants reject the doctrine.

The tradition of Mary’s perpetual virginity first appears clearly in a late second-century text called the Gospel of James. She was established as an orthodoxy at the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 gave her the title “Aeiparthenos”, meaning eternal virgin, and at the Lateran Synod of 649 Pope Martin I emphasized the triple character of perpetual virginity , during and after the birth of Christ. The Lutheran Schmalkaldic Articles (1537) and the reformed Second Helvetic Confession (1562) also codified the doctrine of Mary’s perpetual virginity.[3]

The doctrine of Mary’s perpetual virginity has been challenged on the basis that the New Testament expressly affirms her virginity only before Jesus’ conception and mentions the brothers (Adelphoi) of Jesus. This word very rarely means anything other than a physical or spiritual sibling, and they may have been: (1) the sons of Mary, the mother of Jesus, and Joseph; (2) Sons of Mary referred to as “mother of James and Joses” at Mark 15:40, whom Jerome identified as sister of Mary, mother of Jesus; or (3) sons of Joseph from a previous marriage.

Origin and history[edit]

Virginitas in partu: 1st century [ edit ]

The Odes of Solomon have been interpreted to mean that Mary was a virgin even during childbirth, since it states that Mary did not experience pain during childbirth.[19] However, some have theorized that the Odist was actually referring to the story of the Exodus, in which Jewish women were born very quickly, which supposedly even happened almost immediately, which is why the Egyptian midwives couldn’t come fast enough. There are similar statements in the ascension of Isaiah.[20]

Some have argued that first-century Josephus believed James to be a proper brother of Jesus.[21]

First appearance: 2nd century [ edit ]

Clement of Alexandria (AD 150–215) was an early proponent of Mary’s perpetual virginity.

Mary’s prenatal virginity is attested in Matthew and Luke, but there is no biblical basis for the idea of ​​her perpetual virginity. The position is first addressed in a late 2nd-century text entitled Protoevangelium by James, in which Mary remains a lifelong virgin, Joseph is an old man who marries her without physical desire, and declares Jesus’ brothers to be Joseph’s sons be through a previous marriage. The Proto-Gospel seems to have been used to create the stories of Mary found in the Qur’an, but while Muslims agree with Christians that Mary was a virgin at the moment of Jesus’ conception, the idea of ​​her perpetual virginity is immortal thereafter This is contradicted by the Islamic ideal of women as wives and mothers.

Origen also mentioned that the Gospel of Peter confirmed Mary’s perpetual virginity by saying that Jesus’ “brothers” were from a previous marriage of Joseph.[27][28]

A quote attributed to Papias (AD 70-163) seems to support the view that the “brothers” of Jesus were cousins, however this quote was probably mistakenly attributed to Papias and comes from another Papias later in the 11th century. century lived. 29][30][31][32][33]

Irenaeus and Justin Martyrs, although they never mentioned the virgin birth, clearly confirmed the view that Mary was an eternal virgin.[34]

The Ebionites denied Mary’s perpetual virginity.[36]

Hegesippus distinguished Symeon and James’ relationship to Jesus, calling Symeon a cousin and James a “brother”.

Early uncertainty: 3rd century[ edit ]

In the 3rd century Hippolytus of Rome claimed that Mary was “ever virgin”,[41] while Clement of Alexandria, shortly after the publication of the Protoevangelium, referred to his incident of a midwife examining Mary immediately after birth (“after at birth she was examined by a midwife, who found her a virgin”) and claimed that this is found in the Gospels (“These things are attested by the writings of the Lord”), although he referred to an apocryphal gospel as Fact The 3rd-century scholar Origen used the proto-gospel explanation of the friars to maintain Mary’s perpetual virginity (“There is no child of Mary save Jesus, according to those who think rightly of her”) Tertullian, who between Clement and Origen stood, denying Mary’s perpetual virginity to refute the docetical notion that the Son of God did not take a human body (“although she was a virgin when she conceived, she was a woman when she bore her son”).

Helvidius also argued that Victorinus believed Mary had other children. However, Jerome claimed that he misinterpreted Victorinus. Epiphanus invented a name “Antidicomarians” for a group of people who denied the perpetual virginity of Mary whom Epiphanus attacked[45] but they are also mentioned by Origen.[46] They were active from the 3rd to 5th centuries.[47]

According to Epiphanius, the Antidicomarians claimed that Apollinaris of Laodicea or his disciples denied Mary’s perpetual virginity, although Epiphanus doubted the claim.[48]

Early Christian theologians such as Hippolytus[49] (170–235), Eusebius (260/265–339/340) and Epiphanius (c. 310/320–403) defended Mary’s perpetual virginity.

Establishment of Orthodoxy: 4th Century [ edit ]

By the early fourth century, the spread of monasticism had promoted celibacy as the ideal state, and a moral hierarchy was established in which marriage ranked third below lifelong virginity and widowhood. Eastern theologians generally accepted Mary as Aeiparthenos, but many in the Western Church were less convinced. The theologian Helvidius challenged the inherent devaluation of marriage in this view, arguing that the two states of virginity and marriage are equal. His contemporary Jerome, realizing that this would result in the Mother of God occupying a lower place in heaven than virgins and widows, defended her perpetual virginity in his immensely influential Against Helvidius, published c.383.

[55] Jerome defended the perpetual virginity of Mary against Helvidius.

In the 380s and 390s, the monk Jovinian denied Mary’s virginity in partu (virgin during childbirth) and wrote that if Jesus did not have a normal human birth then his body was something other than a truly human one. As Augustine relates, “Jovinian denied that Mary’s virginity, which existed at her conception, persisted during her birth.” Augustine goes on to say that the reason for Jovinian’s denial of Mary’s virginity in partu was that the doctrine was too close to the Manichaean view that Christ was simply a phantom. According to Ambrose, Jovinian claimed that Mary conceived as a virgin but did not give birth as a virgin. Jerome wrote against Jovinian but neglected to mention this aspect of his teaching, and most commentators believe he did not find it offensive. Jovinian also found two monks in Milan, Sarmatio and Barbatian, who held views similar to those of Jovinian.[58]

The only important Christian intellectual who partially defended Mary’s virginity was Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, who was the primary target of the charge of Manichaeism. For Ambrose, both the physical birth of Jesus by Mary and the baptismal birth of Christians by the Church had to be wholly virginal, even in part, in order to erase the taint of original sin of which labor pains is the physical sign. It was thanks to Ambrose that virginitas in partu was consistently included in the thinking of subsequent theologians. Bonosus of Sardica also denied Mary’s perpetual virginity, for which he was declared a heretic. His followers would survive for many centuries, especially among the Goths.[61][62][63] Also, the perpetual virginity of Mary was denied by some Arians.

Jovinian was condemned as a heretic at a Milan synod under the presidency of Ambrose in 390, and Mary’s perpetual virginity was established as the only orthodox view, although full general consensus was not established until the Council of Ephesus in 431. Further developments were to follow, with the Second Council of Constantinople officially giving her the title “Aeiparthenos” in 553 and Pope Martin I at the Lateran Synod of 649 emphasizing the triple character of perpetual virginity before, during and after the birth of Christ.

Athanasius of Alexandria (d. 393) declared Mary Aeiparthenus an “ever-virgin,” and the liturgy of James, Jesus’ brother, also required a declaration of Mary as an “ever-virgin.” The view was also defended by Augustine, Hilary of Potiers, Didymus the blind and Cyril of Alexandria, among others.

The Apostles’ Creed teaches the doctrine of virginitas in partu.[68]

Middle Ages [edit]

In the Middle Ages, Mary’s perpetual virginity was generally accepted[69], however, the Paulicians denied her perpetual virginity, even saying that Christ refused her blessing.[70][71]

Protestant Reformation[ edit ]

The Protestant Reformation saw a rejection of the special moral status of lifelong celibacy. As a result, marriage and parenting were praised and Mary and Joseph were viewed as a normal married couple. It also affirmed the Bible alone as the primary source of authority regarding God’s Word (sola scriptura). The Reformers noted that while Scripture records the virgin birth, it makes no mention of Mary’s perpetual virginity after Christ’s birth. Mary’s perpetual virginity was recognized by Martin Luther (who referred to her as an eternal virgin in the Smalcald Articles, a 1537 Lutheran creed), Huldrych Zwingli, Thomas Cranmer, Wollebius, Bullinger, John Wycliffe, and later Protestant leaders such as John Wesley, co-founder of the Methodism.[75][76][77] Osiander denied Mary’s perpetual virginity, which Melanchthon despised.[78]

John Calvin’s view was more ambiguous, believing that it was impossible to know what happened to Mary after the birth of Jesus.[76] However, John Calvin argued that Matthew 1:25, used by Helvidius to attack Mary’s perpetual virginity, does not teach that Mary had other children.[79] Other Calvinists affirmed Mary’s perpetual virginity, including in the Second Helvetic Confession – in which they stated that Mary was the “Eternal Virgin Mary” – and in the Notes of the Geneva Bible.[80][3] Theodore Beza, a prominent early Calvinist, included the perpetual virginity of Mary in a list of agreements between Calvinism and the Catholic Church.[81] Some reformers clung to the doctrine to counter more radical reformers who questioned the divinity of Christ; Mary’s perpetual virginity guaranteed Christ’s incarnation despite challenges to its biblical foundations. Modern Protestants have largely rejected Mary’s perpetual virginity on the basis of sola scriptura, and it has rarely appeared explicitly in creeds or doctrinal statements, although Mary’s perpetual virginity is still a common belief in Anglicanism and Lutheranism.[84]

Under the Anabaptists, Hubmaier never gave up his belief in Mary’s perpetual virginity and continued to esteem Mary as the Theotokos (“Mother of God”). These two doctrines are treated separately in Articles Nine and Ten of Hubmaier’s Apologia.[85]

apprenticeship [edit]

The Second Council of Constantinople recognized Mary as Aeiparthenos, meaning “eternal virgin.” For the Eastern Orthodox Church it remains a matter of course that she remained a virgin throughout her earthly life, and the orthodoxy therefore understands the New Testament references to Jesus’ brothers and sisters as designating his relatives but not his mother’s biological children.

The Latin Church, now commonly known as the Catholic Church, shared the Council of Constantinople with the theologians of the Greek or Orthodox community, and therefore shares with them the title Aeiparthenos as accorded to Mary. The Catholic Church has gone further than the Orthodox in making perpetual virginity one of the four Marian dogmas, meaning that it is considered a truth revealed by God, the denial of which is heresy. It explains her virginity before, during and after the birth of Jesus, or in the definition formulated by Pope Martin I at the Lateran Council of 649:

Blessed, ever Virgin and Immaculate, Mary was conceived seedless by the Holy Spirit and gave birth to him without loss of her integrity, and after his birth she preserved her virginity inviolable.

Thomas Aquinas admitted that reason could not prove this, but argued that it had to be accepted because it was “fitting,” for just as Jesus was the only begotten son of God, so he should also be the only begotten son of Mary, as a second and purely human conception would disregard the sacred state of her sacred body. Symbolically, Mary’s perpetual virginity signifies a new creation and a new beginning in the history of salvation. It has been repeatedly stated and argued, most recently by the Second Vatican Council:

This union of the mother with the son in the work of redemption is evident from the time of Christ’s virginal conception… then also at the birth of our Lord, who did not belittle his mother’s virginal integrity but sanctified it… (Lumen Gentium, n.57)

Arguments and evidence[edit]

Fathers of the Church in an 11th-century depiction from Thein an 11th-century depiction from Kyiv

A problem for theologians wishing to preserve Mary’s lifelong virginity is that the Pauline epistles, the four Gospels, and Acts all mention the brothers (Adelphoi) of Jesus, with Mark and Matthew recording their names, and Mark adding unnamed sisters. [Notes 1] The Gospel of James, followed a century later by Epiphanius, declared that the Adelphoi were Joseph’s children by a previous marriage, which is still the view of the Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches. Jerome, believing that Joseph, like Mary, must be a lifelong virgin, argued that these Adelphoi were the sons of “Mary the mother of James and Joses” (Mark 15:40), whom he married by the wife of Clopas identified and sister of the Virgin Mary (John 19:25), who remains popular in the western church. A modern proposal considers these Adelphoi sons of “Mary, mother of James and Joses” (here not identified with the sister of the Virgin Mary) and Clopas, who according to Hegesippus was Joseph’s brother.

Further biblical difficulties were added by Luke 2:7, where Jesus is called the “firstborn” son of Mary, and Matthew 1:25, adding that Joseph “knew her not until she had borne her firstborn son.” [Notes 2] Helvidius argued that firstborn implies later births and that the word “until” leaves open the way to sexual relations after birth; Jerome retorted that even an only son would be a firstborn and that “until” did not have the meaning that Helvidius interpreted it to mean, and immediately after her painted a repellent word portrait of Joseph having intercourse with a bloodstained and exhausted Mary who gave birth – the implication, in his view, of Helvidius’ arguments. Opinions on the quality of Jerome’s rebuttal range from finding it masterful and well-argued to thin, rhetorical, and at times tasteless.

Two other fourth-century fathers, Gregory of Nyssa, according to “a certain apocryphal account” and Augustine, made a further argument by reading Luke 1:34 as a vow of perpetual virginity on Mary’s part; This idea, first introduced in the Proto-Gospel of James, has little scholarly support today, but it and the arguments put forward by Jerome and Ambrose were recognized by Pope John Paul II in his August 28, 1996 catechesis as the four facts in support of the The Catholic Church’s continued belief in Mary’s perpetual virginity.

Arguments from John 19, where Jesus entrusts Mary to the disciple John in place of his brothers, have been argued to support the view that Jesus had no brothers, but Protestants in general have argued against this passage in two ways, first by claiming that the brothers of Jesus were unbelievers or were not present at the crucifixion.[101]

Some have argued that Mary and Joseph could not have had a normal marriage if Mary had remained an eternal virgin, however, it has been argued by Catholics that the marriage was an exception due to the raising of the Son of God.[102]

See also[edit]

Notes [edit]

^ Mark 6:3 names James, Joses, Judas, Simon; Matthew 13:55 has Joseph for Joses, the latter being an abbreviated form of the former, reversing the order of the latter two; Mark 6:3 and Matthew 12:46 refer to unnamed sisters; Luke, John, and Acts also mention brothers. See Bauckham (2015) in bibliography, pages 6-9. ^ The phrase “knew her not” is a Biblical euphemism for sexual relations (see Genesis 4:1). The text neither confirms nor denies Mary’s perpetual virginity, and gives no indication of what happened after Jesus’ conception and birth. See Harrington (1991) in the bibliography, page 36, footnote 25


“Against Heresies 3.21.4”. New advent. c. 180 . To this end they testify that before Joseph had come together with Mary, thus while she remained in virginity, she was found with a child of the Holy Spirit; Matthew 1:18 and that the angel Gabriel said to her: The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore also that holy thing which is born of you shall be called the Son of God; Luke 1:35 and that the angel said to Joseph in a dream: Now this has happened, to fulfill what the prophet Isaiah said: Behold, a virgin shall conceive. Matthew 1:23

“Against Heresies 3.21.10”. New advent. c. 180 . And like the protoplast himself Adam, he had his substance from uncultivated and still virgin soil (for God had not yet sent rain, and man had not tilled the soil Genesis 2:5) and was formed by the hand of God, that is, through the word of God, for through him all things were made, John 1:3 and the Lord took dust from the earth, and formed man; thus He who is the Word, recapitulating Adam in Himself, lawfully received a birth which enabled Him to take Adam [into Himself] from Mary, who was still a virgin.


Why was Mary excommunicated?

One priest with influence over the bishop declared publicly he would ruin the director through the Sisterhood. The result was that Mary was excommunicated by Bishop Sheil on 22 September 1871 for alleged insubordination; most of the schools were closed and the Sisterhood almost disbanded.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

by Osmund Thorpe

Mary Helen MacKillop (1842–1909), known in life as Mother Mary of the Cross, was born in Fitzroy, Melbourne, on 15 January 1842, the eldest of eight children of Alexander McKillop and his wife Flora née McDonald. Her parents had immigrated from the Lochaber area of ​​Inverness-shire and married shortly after their arrival in Melbourne. After a successful start, the family became impoverished.

Mary was educated in private schools, but mainly by her father, who had studied for the priesthood in Rome. To help her family, Mary in turn became a shop assistant, a governess, and in Portland a teacher at the Catholic Denominational School and the owner of a small boarding school for girls. As she matured into womanhood, Mary was likely influenced by an early family friend, Father Patrick Geoghegan, and began to yearn for a more strictly penitential form of religious life. Concluding that she must go to Europe to carry out her plan, she placed herself under the guidance of Father Julian Tenison-Woods, who, as pastor of Penola in South Australia, sometimes visited Melbourne and Portland and wished to found a religious society, ” The Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart”; They should live in poverty and devote themselves to the education of poor children. With Maria as its first member and Superior, the Society was founded on March 19, 1866 with the consent of Bishop Laurence Sheil in Penola. She was now spelling her last name, MacKillop. The sorority spread to Adelaide and other parts of South Australia and grew rapidly but ran into difficulties. Tenison-Woods had become headmaster of Catholic schools and had conflicts with some clergymen over educational matters. A priest with influence over the bishop publicly stated that he would ruin the principal through the sorority. The result was that Mary was excommunicated by Bishop Sheil on September 22, 1871 for alleged disobedience; Most schools were closed and the sorority almost dissolved. The excommunication was lifted on February 21, 1872, by order of the bishop nine days before his death.

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In 1873 Mary received the papal assent of the Sisterhood in Rome, but the rule of life laid down by Tenison-Woods and approved by the bishop on December 17, 1868 was discarded and another established. Tenison-Woods accused her of not doing enough to accept his rule and this caused a lasting rift between them. She traveled extensively in Europe, visiting schools and observing methods of teaching, and returned to Adelaide on January 4, 1875. In March she was elected Superior General of the Sisterhood. Traveling through Australasia she founded schools, monasteries and charities, but came into conflict with those bishops who preferred diocesan control of the Sisterhood to central control of Adelaide. In 1883 Bishop Christopher Reynolds, misunderstanding the extent of his jurisdiction over the Sisterhood, asked them to leave his diocese. She then moved the sisterhood’s headquarters to Sydney. On May 11, 1901, in Rotorua, New Zealand, she suffered a stroke. Though she retained her mental faculties, she was an invalid until she died in Sydney on August 8, 1909.

Mary’s most beautiful feature was her big blue eyes. Tender but determined, her virtues were numerous, and her charity outshone all. Always considered holy, she was proposed as a candidate for the honor of beatification and canonization in 1972, and on February 1, 1973 the process was officially instituted. Mary was beatified on January 19, 1995 at a Mass celebrated by Pope John Paul II at Randwick Racecourse in Sydney. She was born on October 17, 2010 at a ceremony attended by Pope Benedict XVI. celebrated Mass on St. Peter’s Square in the Vatican as Saint Mary of the Cross canonized.

Who is the patron saint of Australia?

Country Patron saint
Australia The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady Help of Christians) Mary of the Cross MacKillop
Austria Joseph Colman of Stockerau Florian Leopold the Good Maurice Severinus of Noricum Vergilius of Salzburg
Bangladesh Francis Xavier
Barbados Andrew

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

This is a list of patron saints of places by nation, region, and city. If a place is not listed here, it may be listed under “Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary”.

Continents[ edit ]

Patron saints by region

Regions[ edit ]


This list includes only sovereign states; Subdivisions, such as the constituent countries of the United Kingdom, are listed under “Administrative Subdivisions” below.

Former States[ edit ]

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

Cities and towns[edit]

Write to Catherine of Siena





Dinajpur – Francis Xavier







Czech Republic









Budapest – Peter the Apostle


Győr – Sebastian






Kisumu-Therese of Lisieux




Antananarivo – Francis Xavier




The Netherlands













South Africa

Cape Town – Franz Xavier

Witbank – Therese of Lisieux


Sri Lanka






United Kingdom

United States

Archdioceses and dioceses[edit]

Europe [edit]

America [edit]

Asia [edit]

Oceania[ edit ]

Africa [edit]

Extraterrestrial places[ edit ]

See also[edit]

References[edit] [1]

Who is the patron saint of hopeless cases?

Jude, Patron Saint of Hopeless Cases and Lost Causes? St. Jude, also known as Judas Thaddaeus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Not to be confused with Judas Iscariot, Christ’s betrayer.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

by Ryan Hart | Updated February 24, 2021 | The post may contain affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate, we earn from qualifying purchases.

In this post, you will learn a special prayer to St. Jude, the patron saint of hopeless cases and lost causes.

As a matter of fact:

This novena prayer has been proven to work wonders for those in dire need of help.

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Prayer to Saint Jude Thaddeus

O most holy apostle, holy Jude, faithful servant and friend of Jesus, the Church honors and calls you worldwide as patron of hopeless cases and near-desperate things. Pray for me who am so miserable. Use, I beg you, this special privilege granted to you to bring visible and prompt help where help was almost in doubt. Come to my aid in this great need, that in all my needs, tribulations, and sufferings, I may have the comfort and help of heaven, especially…(insert your prayer request here)…and that I may praise God for you and all elect forever. I promise you, O blessed Jew, to always remember this great favour, to always honor you as my special and powerful benefactor, and to gratefully encourage devotion to you. Amen.

St. Jude prayer requests

Click here to send a prayer to St. Jude

St Jude Thaddeus Prayer can be used to ask for help when you are in dire need of help.

One of the most common causes St. Jude is invoked for is the healing of diseases, but he is also known for helping those who are unemployed or struggling financially.

He is the patron of desperate causes, lost causes, and lost objects. He is also a patron saint of desperate situations, which can be turned around with the help of others, if not oneself. In fact, his name means “to save” or “to set free” in Greek.

Many people turn to Saint Jude for help when they have tried to solve a problem themselves but have failed. Some reasons people read the St. Jude prayer could be:

Financial help to pay unexpected bills

Extra money to pay monthly rent or mortgage payments

Cash to pay big medical bills

Remedies for chronic health problems or terminal diseases

Miracles to solve urgent problems

St. Jude’s Novena Prayer (9 days)

Novena means “nine” in Latin and is a sequence of prayers read once a day for nine consecutive days.

Novena prayers are special because they represent the nine days the 12 apostles prayed together before Pentecost (Acts 1:4-5). After nine days of prayer, the apostles “were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues, as the Spirit gave them command” (Acts 2:4).

This biblical event is why the St. Jude Novena prayer must be read once a day for 9 consecutive days.

During this novena we ask St. Jude to intercede or take action on our behalf because our problems are too great to solve on our own.

O holy holy Judas! Apostle and martyr, great in virtue and rich in miracles, close relative of Jesus Christ, faithful intercessor to all who call on you, special patron in time of need; I turn to you from the bottom of my heart and humbly beg you, who has given so great power to God, to come to my rescue; help me now in my urgent need and fulfill my earnest request. I will never forget your graces and favors that you obtain for me and I will do my utmost to spread my devotion to you. Amen.

Why pray to St. Jude, the patron saint of hopeless cases and lost cases?

St. Jude, also known as Judas Thaddeus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Not to be confused with Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Christ. Judas Thaddeus is often referred to simply as a Jew in the Bible.

Because the two apostles Judas Thaddeus and Judas Iscariot share the same first name, it was believed that many Christians avoided praying to Saint Jude for help because they did not want to inadvertently call on the wrong Judas.

Many believed that since St. Jude was often overlooked in prayer, he was eager to help anyone who asked his intercession. So much so that he would help with almost any lost or hopeless case to prove his devotion to Christ.

That is why he is the patron saint of desperate cases and hopeless cases in the Roman Catholic Church.

According to the New Testament, St. Jude was a relative of Jesus, possibly his brother or cousin (Matthew 13:55-56). He is said to have been a carpenter (Mark 6:3).

He preached in Jerusalem and Samaria. He was eventually martyred in Persia by being sawn in two, after which he was buried by an unnamed woman and his body miraculously rejoined.

The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates his feast day on October 28.

What to do after saying the St. Jude prayer

After saying a prayer to St. Jude, you might be tempted to sit and wait, but that would be a big mistake.

God works miracles every day and wants to help you too. However, instead of performing the miracle for us, God sometimes points us in the right direction and tells us to take action.

(After all, we were put on earth to glorify God in everything we do, not the other way around.)

One way to demonstrate God’s character to others is to take responsibility for our problems, be humble, and ask for help when we need it.

So after you’ve said the St. Jude prayer, here are a few things you can do to get help with your problems:

What to do next if you’re facing a foreclosure

If you can’t make your mortgage payments and are facing foreclosure, there may still be hope.

The US The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) provides a free list of licensed foreclosure avoidance consultants nationwide. These advisors can offer you information and support to help you avoid foreclosure.

After contacting an advisor, you should inform your lender that you are working to resolve your foreclosure situation. Studies have shown that homeowners who seek foreclosure counseling are far less likely to lose their homes and can receive significant reductions in their monthly mortgage payments when entering a loan modification program.

Click here to find a Foreclosure Avoidance Advisor near you

What to do next if you have overdue bills

If overdue bills are piling up but you’re feeling hopeless and overwhelmed, help is available.

Consumer credit agencies are non-profit organizations that provide financial assistance to those in need. They can help you develop a plan to pay off debt, increase savings, and improve your financial situation.

Some of the most common solutions these agencies offer include debt management plans, debt settlement, and debt negotiation.

Click here to book a private coaching session

What to do next if you have serious health problems

If you have serious health problems and are unsure of who to turn to, there are many options for those on low incomes and those without health insurance.

Consider visiting a health center supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration. These centers are community-based and provide primary and preventive care to patients regardless of their ability to pay.

Click here to find a community health center near you

Now it’s your turn

And now I would like to hear from you.

What does the prayer of Saint Jude mean to you?

How has St. Jude, patron saint of hopeless cases, touched your life?

Please let me know by leaving a comment right below.

Was Mary MacKillop the first Australian saint?

(Reuters) – Pope Benedict presided over a ceremony on Sunday making six new saints of the Roman Catholic Church, including Mary MacKillop, Australia’s first saint.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

(Reuters) – Pope Benedict on Sunday officiated at a ceremony proclaiming six new saints of the Roman Catholic Church, including Mary MacKillop, Australia’s first saint.

Here are some important facts about MacKillop’s life and work:

* MacKillop founded the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart. The Order now has more than 850 members who run schools, retirement homes and community outreach in Australia, New Zealand, East Timor, Ireland, Scotland, Peru and Brazil.

* MacKillop was born in Melbourne in 1842. She began working as a governess in the South Australian country town of Penola in 1861.

* MacKillop and English priest Julian Tenison Woods opened their first school in Penola in 1866. A year later she opened her first convent and school in Adelaide, and in August 1867 she took her religious vows. Within five years, 40 schools, monasteries and four charitable organizations were founded.

* MacKillop regularly clashed with the male-dominated church hierarchy over her desire to retain centralized control of her order. The ongoing tensions led to MacKillop being excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1871. The excommunication order was lifted five months later.

* She was instrumental in exposing the sexual abuse of minors by an Irish priest, and newly uncovered documents show her whistleblowing led in part to her excommunication and an attempt to shut down her order.

* MacKillop died in Sydney on August 8, 1909. She was buried in a local cemetery but her remains were moved to a new memorial chapel in North Sydney in 1914.

* The first steps toward MacKillop’s canonization began in 1926. In 1973, the Vatican allowed MacKillop to use the title Servant of God, giving formal approval to develop a case for holiness. She was beatified at a ceremony in Sydney in 1995 during a visit to Australia by Pope John Paul II.

* In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI approved a second miracle attributed to MacKillop, which was the final step required before she could be declared a saint.

Sources: Sisters of St Joseph website, Mary MacKillop official website, America magazine.

Mary Mackillop Prayer

Mary Mackillop Prayer
Mary Mackillop Prayer

See some more details on the topic prayer to st mary mackillop here:

Novena to St. Mary Mackillop

be fired afresh by the Holy Spirit so that we too, like Mary MacKillop, may live with courage, trust, and openness. Ever-generous God, hear our prayer. We ask …

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Date Published: 11/8/2021

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Novena to Saint Mary of the Cross. – Catholic Doors Ministry

PRAYER # 2. Ever generous God, you inspired Saint Mary MacKillop to live her life faithful to the Gospel of Jesus Christ and constant in bringing hope and …

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Date Published: 2/23/2022

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St. Mary MacKillop Novena – Pray More Novenas

Dear Lord, we thank You for giving us St. Mary MacKillop as an example of holiness. Help us to imitate the devotion to You she showed in remaining faithful …

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Date Published: 12/5/2022

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Praying with St Mary – WAYS TO PRAY

to those who were disheartened, lonely or needy. … We ask that you grant our request………………. … so that we too, like Mary MacKillop, may live with courage, trust …

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Date Published: 4/14/2022

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Mary MacKillop Prayer – Catholic Diocese of Broken Bay

Ever-generous God,. You inspired St Mary MacKillop to live her life faithful to the Gospel of Jesus Christ and constant in bringing hope and …

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Date Published: 4/6/2021

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Feast Day Prayers – Mary MacKillop Today

We invite you to use our prayer resources below during the month of August to celebrate the Feast Day of Saint. Mary MacKillop of the Cross.

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Date Published: 9/24/2022

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ST. PAT’s, MORTLAKE PRAYER TO SAINT MARY OF THE CROSS MACKILLOP. Parish Prayer Intention from Saturday 31 July until Monday, 8 August.

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Date Published: 5/21/2022

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Powerful Prayer to St. Mary Mackillop – Catholic News World

Powerful Prayer to St. Mary Mackillop – Novena to Mother Mary of the Cross + VIDEO Biography 1st Saint of Australia – #Mackillop.

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Date Published: 2/10/2021

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Saint Mary MacKillop | Biography, Patron Saint Of, Feast Day, Facts, & Miracles

St. Mary MacKillop, fully Saint Mary Helen MacKillop, also called Saint Mary of the Cross (born 15 January 1842 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia – died 8 August 1909 in North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; canonized in October). Aug 2010; Feast Day 8 August), religious figure, educator and social reformer who was the first Australian to be beatified by the Roman Catholic Church and the first Australian to be recognized as one of its saints. She is informally considered the patron saint of victims of sexual abuse for her role in exposing a pedophile priest.

MacKillop was born in Australia to poor Scottish immigrants. Her father, a former seminarian who dropped out of priesthood studies due to poor health, emphasized the importance of education and homeschooled his eight children. MacKillop began working when she was 14, and she was often the mainstay of her family. In 1860 she moved to the small rural town of Penola to serve as a governess to her aunt and uncle’s children. There, MacKillop provided her cousins ​​with a basic education and soon extended it to the town’s poor children. A young priest, Father Julian Tenison Woods, encouraged her to continue this work, assuring her that educating the poor is an ideal way to serve God.

In 1866 MacKillop and Woods founded Australia’s first nunnery, the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart, and also established St Joseph’s School in a converted stable at Penola, which provided free education for local children. In 1867 MacKillop made his vows and became the sisters’ first superior. The following year, the sisters opened schools in other Australian cities, as well as an orphanage and a refuge for women released from prison.

MacKillop intended the order to be self-governing and devoted to teaching and charity. She and Woods, who wrote the rule for the order, insisted that the sisters would accept a life of utter poverty and trust in divine providence. Furthermore, her school at Penola and the other schools founded by her order offered both secular and religious education regardless of the students’ religious affiliation and accepted no money from the government, remaining open to all and accepting only what the parents could at a time when the government still financially supported religious schools. Some Australian priests and bishops were openly hostile to both the degree of autonomy enjoyed by the Josephites and MacKillop’s rejection of federal funds. She and the sisters are said to have drawn even more anger when MacKillop reported reports of alleged sexual abuse by an Irish priest in South Australia; The priest was then brought back to Ireland. In 1871 Bishop Laurence Sheil of Adelaide excommunicated MacKillop for insubordination, perhaps deliberately misinformed by his advisers. However, the next year, on his deathbed, Sheil admitted he may have been misled and reinstated MacKillop.

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The remainder of MacKillop’s career was marked by clashes with priests and bishops in the Australian Church. After meeting Pope Pius IX. in 1873 she won papal approval for Josephite rule, with changes that relaxed the degree of poverty imposed on the sisters. MacKillop expanded the order’s educational and charitable efforts and attracted new sisters. In 1875 she was appointed Superior General of the Order. Despite her elevation, she continued to encounter hostility from a number of priests and bishops, and the sisters’ work was restricted in certain cities. In 1885 she was deposed as Superior General, but reinstated in 1899 and remained at the head of the Order until her death.

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In June 1995 MacKillop was beatified by Pope John Paul II. In February 2010, Pope Benedict XVI recognized MacKillop as a saint after evaluating the testimony of an Australian woman who claimed her terminal cancer went away after calling on MacKillop in prayer. She was canonized in October.

St Mary MacKillop College

Welcome to St Mary MacKillop College Canberra, formerly known as MacKillop Catholic College, a co-educational school for students in grades 7 to 12 in the Tuggeranong Valley. The College is administered by the Catholic Education Board of the Archdiocese of Canberra and Goulburn.

There are two campuses that are about five kilometers apart. Students in grades 7 through 9 are housed on the Wanniassa campus, while students in grades 10 through 12 are housed on the Isabella campus.

The college motto is “Faith and Courage” which reflects and honors Saint Mary MacKillop for whom the college is named.

The College is open to all families willing to support the Catholic ethos and the College’s educational, behavioral and uniform requirements.

MacKillop – Emmanuel Catholic College

Dearest God, we thank you for the example of Saint Mary MacKillop,

who, in her gospel life, testified to the human dignity of every human being.

She faced life’s challenges with faith and courage.

We pray for our needs through their intercession.

We say this prayer through Jesus the Lord.


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