Prayers Against The Spirit Of Amalek? Quick Answer

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What does Amalek symbolize?

In Judaism, the Amalekites came to represent the archetypal enemy of the Jews. In Jewish folklore, the Amalekites are considered to be the symbol of evil.

What is the spirit of Amalekites?

The Amalekite spirit is arrogant like the king that Saul failed to kill. It’s sneaky, manipulative, and deceiving like the enemy that carried off David’s family. This spirit has no respect for authority and will kill the king in you given the chance.

Why did God want the Amalekites?

Their story is that they, unprovoked, attacked Israel from behind as they had just finished crossing the Red Sea, and Israel went to war with them. Because of this and their many other sins, God vowed to blot them out from under heaven (Ex.

Who defeated Amalek?

Moses defeated the Amalekites with the divine weapon, like he and Aaron had repeatedly used their hands or their staffs (7.9-10, 19-21; 8.1-2, 12-13[5-6, 16-17]; 9.22-23; 10.12-13, 21-22) to bring the plagues on Egypt or to move the Red Sea (Exod 14.16, 21, 26-27).

What did the Amalekites do wrong?

The Amalekites harassed the Hebrews during their Exodus from Egypt and attacked them at Rephidim near Mount Sinai, where they were defeated by Joshua. They were among the nomadic raiders defeated by Gideon and were condemned to annihilation by Samuel.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

Amalekite, member of an ancient nomadic tribe, or assemblage of tribes, described in the Old Testament as implacable enemies of Israel, though closely related to Ephraim, one of the 12 tribes of Israel. The district over which they extended lay south of Judah and probably extended into northern Arabia. The Amalekites harassed the Hebrews during their exodus from Egypt and attacked them at Repidim near Mount Sinai, where they were defeated by Joshua. They were among the nomadic raiders defeated by Gideon and sentenced to destruction by Samuel. Their final defeat came in the time of Hezekiah.

What does the name Amalek mean in the Bible?

In Biblical Names the meaning of the name Amalek is: A people that licks up.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?


Biblical Names Meaning:

In Biblical names, the name Amalek means: A licking people.

Why did the Amalekites fight Israel?

According to William Petri, Amalekites tried to prevent the Israelites from reaching the oasis. Petri’s conclusions are based on his research on climate, which, since the days of Moses, remained almost unchanged.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

Battle in the Book of Exodus

The Battle of Refidim (or Rephidim) as described in the Bible was a battle between the Israelites and the Amalekites that took place at Refidim while the former were advancing toward the Promised Land. The description of this battle is found in the Book of Exodus.

Battle as Recorded in the Bible [ edit ]

According to Exodus 17:8–13, after fleeing Egypt, the Israelites camped at Repidim.

The battle began with the Amalekites’ baseless attack on the Israelites (Exodus 17:8). Thereafter, Yahweh announced the destruction of the Amalekites and challenged Israel to defeat them, declaring that Israel would have peace with their enemies (Exodus 17:14, Deuteronomy 25:19). This was the first of several conflicts spanning several hundred years between the Amalekites and Israelites.[1]

Moses challenged the believers to battle and placed his people under the leadership of Joshua. The words “that will hold up the staff of God” could be an expression of his belief in imminent victory in the coming battle, as they fought under the banner of God.

Moses watched from above. As he held up his hands, Israel gained the military advantage. According to the biblical account, whenever he laid his hands down, they began to lose. The Bible describes how when Moses grew tired, his closest relatives, Hur and Aaron, held up his hands for support (Exodus 17:12). The battle lasted until evening and ended in victory for the Israelites.

The Book of Exodus mentions the curse penalty thrown upon the enemies of the chosen people, the children of Israel. The Amalekites should be erased from history. Curses with similar overtones are also recorded in the Book of Jeremiah (Jer 2:3). After the success of the Israeli military, it erected an altar – Yahweh-Nissi (Hebrew יְהוָה נִסִּי) – which means “The Lord is my banner”. The name refers to the sticks held by Moses.

research [edit]

According to some researchers, [who?] Rephidim was the only oasis in the region. It was in the mountains where nomads brought cattle to drink. When the Israelites traveled to Canaan, they discovered the Amalekites inhabiting the northern Sinai Peninsula and the Negev.

According to William Petri, the Amalekites tried to prevent the Israelites from reaching the oasis. Petri’s conclusions are based on his climate research, which has remained almost unchanged since the days of Moses. He therefore concluded that the number of nomads living there remained at a similar level for millennia, around five to seven thousand people. Given the biblical description of the battle and the description that its final outcome was not decided until evening, it is believed that the number of combatants on either side was close. The Israelites are believed to have had approximately six hundred thousand families. The clash resulted in the invaders entering the oasis.

The 19th-century Bible scholar and commentator Alexander Łopukhin interpreted Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 25:17-18) to mean that the Amalekites first besieged, robbing exhausted travelers who fell short of the oasis, and then attacked an entire tribe of Israelites]

John Van Seters argues that, according to traditional interpretation, a show of hands by Moses was taken as a sign of prayer; this is significant because the text does not mention prayer directly. Van Seters believed that the gesture of Moses, like Joshua’s – raising the spear (Joshua 8:18-26) – should be understood as the practice of magic and secondarily religious. Hans-Christoph Schmitt disputes this view and points out that such restrictions are unlikely. In his opinion, parallels should be sought in 1 Samuel 7:2-13, where Israel is victorious thanks to Samuel’s constant prayer.


What is the spirit of tiredness?

Spiritual fatigue is also referred to as spiritual weariness or a lack of strength to push forward; in other words, when we feel spiritually drained, defeated, and at times sick of trying. Everyone experiences spiritual weariness. It is part of the process of growing in deep relationship with Jesus.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

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Do you feel discouraged, disconnected, or disillusioned with your faith? If this is the case, you may be suffering from spiritual exhaustion.

Spiritual exhaustion is feeling tired or exhausted in your Christian journey.

Spiritual fatigue is also referred to as spiritual weariness or lack of power to move forward; in other words, when we feel mentally drained, defeated, and sometimes tired of trying.

Everyone experiences spiritual fatigue. It is part of the process of growing in a deep relationship with Jesus.

I have experienced spiritual wear and tear many times and learned from those low points that God is always walking by my side. When I’m spiritually exhausted and I push myself into Jesus, I grow stronger, closer to God, and mature in my faith.

Spiritual fatigue is inevitable because of life’s seasons and trials. But we don’t have to stay there.

For Christ followers there is hope for whatever troubles our mind, body, or spirit. Jesus doesn’t promise to take away the despair, but He promises to carry us until we glimpse His love and hope again.

Spiritual exhaustion reminds me of the times I tried to be an athlete. Yes, I’ve tried to be a runner, swimmer, volleyball player and tennis player. But I’ve never had success. I’m a really good hiker, but I’m not an athlete.

When I try to exercise I seem to have weights on each leg that don’t let me move quickly. It also seems like the ground is getting harder and I’m uncomfortable. can you understand Probably not if you’re an athlete!

When I try to force my body to do things it can’t do, I feel defeated and drained. That same feeling of despair comes over me when I focus on what I can’t do in my faith instead of what Jesus wants me to do.

Not trusting God to guide me can lead to spiritual exhaustion.

Although I have not found success as an athlete, I have learned how to overcome spiritual fatigue by turning to God and recognizing when my spirit is exhausted and needs recharging.

“I sing a joyful praise to God. I turn chariot wheels for joy to my Savior God. I count on God’s rule to prevail, I take courage and I gain strength. I walk like a deer I feel like the king of the mountains!” Habakkuk 3:18-19 MSG

What is Spiritual Fatigue?

There are many examples in the Bible of what spiritual fatigue is. Studying the words of God helps us to see that even the great heroes of the Bible struggled and experienced spiritual wear and tear.

Mary Magdalene understood what spiritual weariness is

Can you imagine Mary’s despair after witnessing the crucifixion and death of her close friend Jesus? But Jesus’ presence comforts their weary hearts, just as he is ready to comfort us.

When we experience loss and other sad events, we can feel spiritually drained.

“Mary stood weeping in front of the tomb, and as she wept she bent down and looked inside. She saw two angels dressed in white, one at the head and the other at the foot of where Jesus’ body had been. “Dear woman, why are you crying?” the angels asked her.

“Because they took my master away,” she replied, “and I don’t know where they took him.” She turned to leave and saw someone standing there. It was Jesus, but she didn’t recognize him. “Dear woman, why are you crying?” Jesus asked her. “Who are you looking for?”

She thought he was the gardener. “Sir,” she said, “if you took him, tell me where you took him and I’ll get him.” “Maria!” Jesus said.

John 20:11-16 NLT

Moses understood what spiritual weariness is

When Moses and the Jewish people fled Egypt, they became physically and mentally weary. They felt they had made a mistake and had unfulfilled expectations that left them spiritually exhausted and questioning God.

When we make a mistake, it can drain us mentally and emotionally. But God redeems our mistakes.

“Where am I going to get meat for all these people? They keep howling at me and saying, “Give us meat to eat!” I can’t carry all these people alone! The load is way too heavy! If that’s how you want to treat me, just go ahead and kill me. Do me a favor and spare me this misery!”

Numbers 11:13-15 NLT

Job understood what spiritual weariness is

Job lost everything and spiritual exhaustion followed. In his time of disappointment and grief, he calls out to God honestly and authentically.

In times of confusion and distance from God, He hears our cries and surrounds us with His grace and peace.

“Is not all human life a struggle? Our life is like that of a day laborer, like a laborer longing for shade, like a servant waiting to be paid. I, too, have been allotted months of futility, long and wearisome nights of misery. When I’m lying in bed I’m like, ‘When will it be morning? “But the night drags on, and I toss and turn until dawn. My days fly faster than a weaver’s shuttle. You end up with no hope, God, remember my life is just a breath and I’ll never be happy again.”

Job 7:1-7 NLT

Paul understood what spiritual weariness is

After being commissioned by God and changing the direction of his life, Paul experienced trials and defeats within the new church. He worked tirelessly to preach the good news only to meet danger, betrayal, conflict, rejection, and lack of enthusiasm.

But through his spiritual exhaustion he stayed on purpose and was used mightily to spread the redeeming message of Christ.

When we lose sight of our purpose or experience disappointment in relationships, God can bring spiritual healing.

“I have traveled many arduous miles, and have often been in great peril from flooded rivers, and from robbers, and from my own people the Jews, as well as at the hands of the Gentiles. I have faced grave dangers from mobs in the cities and from death in the deserts and in stormy seas and from men who claim to be brothers in Christ but are not. I’ve lived with tiredness and pain and sleepless nights. Often I have been hungry and thirsty and have eaten nothing; often I have shivered with cold without enough clothing to keep me warm.” 2 Corinthians 11:26-27 TLB

We can learn from each of these biblical characters that it is okay to call upon God from a place of physical and spiritual exhaustion.

When we understand what spiritual fatigue is, we avoid trying to fix our mind on our own or ignoring the problem. We learn that isolation is dangerous and can lead us to replace God’s peace with a mix of negative emotions about ourselves and others.

If you’re feeling spiritually drained, remember that it can bring you closer to Him: God sees you. God understands. God will walk beside you.

Why do I feel spiritually drained?

When we ask ourselves why I feel spiritually drained, it can cause us to question our beliefs and become discouraged. But it helps us persevere when we recognize that feelings come and go and don’t dictate our identity in Christ, our purpose, or who we are unless we let it.

When we feel spiritually exhausted, it seems like we’re carrying a heavy suitcase full of disappointments, mistakes, unforgiveness, confusion, or fear.

There are many things in life that can lead to spiritual exhaustion. When we recognize what is causing us to feel spiritually drained, we can address the issue before we begin to feel hopeless and distant from God.

Here are five causes that are common:




lack of control

Unfulfilled Expectations

It helps to recognize triggers for spiritual exhaustion and to try to manage and eliminate them as much as possible. It requires us to examine our relationships, habits, and spiritual disciplines.

Although we experience many uncomfortable situations in life, they need not bind us and diminish our trust in God, His love and faithfulness, or His ability to lead us to spiritual healing and the fulfillment of His plan for our lives.

“When there is no more opportunity for doubt, there is no more opportunity for belief.” Philip Yance

How to overcome spiritual fatigue

To learn how to overcome spiritual fatigue, we must begin by acknowledging that we are struggling and that spiritual fatigue is a real problem that will not go away on its own.


Does your prayer life need some refinement? Do you find it difficult to communicate with God? Are you praying specifically for what is troubling you? Prayer is simply speaking to God and enjoying a growing relationship with Him. We can call upon him and express that we are feeling spiritually drained. We can ask for guidance and comfort from His peace and love.

Read the Bible and other Christian inspiration

There are many approaches and systems to reading the Bible. There are no wrong ways to open and hear from God’s Word. But when we are learning how to overcome spiritual fatigue, it is helpful to search very carefully for scriptures that speak to us exactly where we are.

Talk to a spiritual mentor or trusted friends

Sometimes it’s easy to drift off to someone who listens to our feelings. It just feels good to get things out! But when we’re experiencing spiritual exhaustion, it’s best to work through our feelings with someone we trust who can mentor us and lead us back to Jesus. I have a friend who doesn’t realize how much she’s looked after me. Whenever I felt stuck I called her because in many situations she has gone before me. As we share with trusted friends, we feel encouraged as we hear their stories of how God has met them as they overcome spiritual exhaustion.

Join a retreat

Many years ago I attended an eight-hour silent retreat. I hesitated because it’s a long time for me not to be able to speak! I signed up because I felt the beginnings of spiritual weariness settling in my spirit. This full day retreat was a lifesaver that helped me reconnect with God and get back to my purpose.

Celebrate small victories

When we feel mentally exhausted, we may need to develop new patterns and activities. We may experience a moment or a day of relief, but become discouraged when our fatigue returns. We can learn to praise God in the moment and start fresh each day until we achieve victory in our soul. Spiritual healing comes when we celebrate God’s grace and mercy… one step at a time.

“The deepest level of worship is praising God in the midst of pain, thanking God in a trial, trusting Him when tempted, surrendering while suffering, and loving Him when He seems far off .” Rick Warren

Bible Verses to Overcome Spiritual Fatigue

Bible verses speak to us and affect our minds, especially when we recite and memorize them. Here are six bible verses to overcome spiritual fatigue that will nourish my soul and lead on the path of spiritual healing.

“He gives strength to the weak and strength to the powerless.

Even youngsters will become weak and tired, and young men will collapse from exhaustion. But those who trust in the Lord will find new strength. They will soar like eagles on wings. You will run and not get tired. They will walk and not faint.” Isaiah 40:29-31 NLT “Fear not, for I am with you. Don’t be discouraged, for I am your God. I will strengthen you and help you. I will support you with my victorious right hand.” Isaiah 41:10 NLT “I will refresh weary bodies; I will restore weary souls.” Jeremiah 31:25 NIV “Three times I begged the Lord to take it away. Each time he said, “My grace is all you need. My strength works best in weakness.” So now I rejoice in boasting in my weaknesses, that the power of Christ may work through me.” 2 Corinthians 12:8-9 NLT “So let us not weary, allow good do. At the right time we will reap a good harvest if we don’t give up or quit. So now, at every opportunity, let us work for the good of all, beginning with those closest to us in the faith community.” Galatians 6:9-10 NIV “Are you tired? Worn? Burnt out from religion? Come to me. Walk away with me and you’ll get your life back. I’ll show you how to really relax. Walk with me and work with me – watch me do it. Learn the unforced rhythms of grace. I will not burden you with anything heavy or improper. Keep company with me and you will learn to live freely and easily.” Matthew 11:28-30 MSG

Spiritual Healing Books

Although it is normal to experience spiritual exhaustion, staying in a dry place is not good. God wants to lead you to spiritual healing.

Here are three books that can give you some insight into your path to spiritual healing.

Reaching for the Invisible God by Philip Yancey

“Life with God doesn’t always work out the way you think it will. High expectations meet the reality of personal weaknesses and unwelcome surprises. And the God you have been told wants a personal relationship with you may seem distant and emotionally unavailable. Does God play games? What can you trust in this God? how can you know god This relationship with a God that you can’t see or hear or touch – how does that really work?”

The Purposeful Life of Rick Warren

“Living the purpose you were created for takes you beyond survival or success to a life that matters—the life you were meant to live.

You will discover the five benefits when you know your purpose:

It will explain the meaning of your life. It will simplify your life. It will focus your life. It will increase your motivation. It will prepare you for eternity.”

Winning the War in Your Head by Craig Groeschel

“Are your thoughts out of control – just like your life? Do you long to break out of the spiral of destructive thinking? Let God’s truth be your battle plan to win the war in your mind!

We’ve all tried to think our way out of bad habits and unhealthy thought patterns, only to find ourselves stuck in a runaway mind and an off-track routine. Pastor and New York Times bestselling author Craig Groeschel deeply understands this daily battle with self-doubt and negative thinking, and in this powerful new book he reveals the strategies he’s discovered to change your mind and your life for the long term.”

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Overcoming spiritual fatigue leads to spiritual healing

Do you suffer from spiritual exhaustion? If so, call on God and tell Him; be honest about how you feel. Wait for Him and He will meet you right where you are and lead you out of despair into the joy of His Spirit.

Overcoming spiritual fatigue is possible and can lead to spiritual healing and a stronger relationship with Jesus!

Before You Go… Have you learned to overcome spiritual fatigue? Would love to hear what you did to persevere and find spiritual healing in the comments!

Was Haman an Amalekite?

As his epithet Agagite indicates, Haman was a descendant of Agag, the king of the Amalekites. Some commentators interpret this descent to be symbolic, due to his similar personality.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

Biblical figure

Haman begs Esther’s mercy from Rembrandt

Haman (Hebrew: הָמָן Hāmān; also known as Haman the Agagite or Haman the Wicked) is the main antagonist in the Book of Esther who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was an official at the court of the Persian Empire under King Ahasuerus, commonly identified as Xerxes I (d. 465 BC), but traditionally equated with Artaxerxes I or Artaxerxes II.[1] As his surname Agagite suggests, Haman was a descendant of Agag, king of the Amalekites. Some commentators interpret this descent as symbolic due to his similar personality.

Etymology and meaning of the name[edit]

The name has been equated with the Persian name of Omanes[4] (Old Persian: 𐎡𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁, Imāniš) recorded by Greek historians. Several etymologies have been proposed for it: it has been associated with the Persian word hamayun, meaning ‘exalted’ [4] (noun dictionaries usually list it as ‘magnificent’); with the sacred drink Haoma;[4] or with the Persian name Vohuman, meaning “good thoughts”. The 19th-century Bible critic Jensen associated it with the Elamite god Humban, a view rejected by later scholars. Ahriman, a Zoroastrian spirit of destruction, has also been suggested as Etymon. [citation needed] Hoschander suggests that Haman is a priestly title and not a proper name.

Haman in the Hebrew Bible[ edit ]

As described in the book of Esther, Haman was the son of Hammedatha the Agagite. After Haman was appointed chief minister to King Ahasuerus, all of the king’s servants were required to bow to Haman, but Mordecai refused. Angered by this, and aware of Mordecai’s Jewish nationality, Haman convinced Ahasuerus to allow him to kill all Jews in the Persian Empire.[7]

The conspiracy was foiled by Queen Esther, the king’s youngest wife, who was herself Jewish. Esther invited Haman and the king to two banquets. At the second banquet, she informed the king that Haman planned to kill her (and the other Jews). This enraged the king, who was even more angered when he found (after briefly leaving the room and returning) that Haman had fallen onto Esther’s couch to beg Esther for mercy, which the king interpreted as a sexual advance.[8 ]

By order of the king, Haman was hanged from the 50 cubit high gallows, originally built by Haman himself on the advice of his wife Zeresh, to hang Mordecai.[9] The bodies of Haman’s ten sons were also hanged after they fell fighting the Jews.[10] The Jews also killed about 75,000 of their enemies in self-defense.[11]

The apparent purpose of this unusually tall gallows can be understood from the geography of Shushan: Haman’s house (where the mast was located) was probably in the city of Susa (a flat area), while the royal citadel and palace were on a hilltop about 15 meters higher than the city. Such a high pole would have enabled Haman to watch Mordecai’s corpse while he dined in the royal palace if his plans had worked as intended.[12]

Haman in other sources[edit]

Midrash[ edit ]

According to Ḥanan b. Rava, his mother was ʾĂmatlaʾy, a descendant of ʿÔrebtî (also ʿÔrǝbtāʾ Raven Woman), apparently patriarch of a large Nehardic house.[13][14]

TgEsth1 and TgEsth3 call him “Haman son of Hamedatha descendant of Agag son of Amaleq.” The Targum Sheni states Haman’s lineage as follows: “Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, son of Khada,[a] son ​​of Kuza,[b] son ​​of Alipilot,[c] son ​​of Dios son of Diosos, [d] son ​​of Peros son of Ma’dan[e] son ​​of Bala’qan,[f] son ​​of Antimiros,[g] ​​son ​​of Hadrus,[h] son ​​of Shegar son of Negar,[ i] son ​​of Parmashta , son of Vaizatha, son of Agag, son of Sumqar, son of Amalek, son of a concubine of Eliphaz son of Esau”.[15][16] Between Agag, that of Samuel the prophet, was executed at the time of King Saul, and Amalek, who lived several hundred years earlier, appears to be left out by several generations.

In the rabbinic tradition, Haman is seen as the archetype of evil and the persecutor of the Jews. Of course, after attempting to exterminate the Jews of Persia and thereby making himself their worst enemy, Haman became the focus of many Talmudic legends. Once very poor, he sold himself as a slave to Mordecai.[17] He was a hairdresser at Kefar Karzum for twenty-two years.[18] Haman had embroidered an idolatrous image on his clothes so that those who bowed to him at the king’s command also bowed to the image.[19]

Haman was also an astrologer, and when he was about to determine the date for the genocide of the Jews, he first cast lots to determine which day of the week would be most favorable for this purpose.[3] Every day, however, proved favorable for the Jews.[3] Then he tried to set the month, but found that the same was true for every month; hence Nisan was favorable to the Jews because of the Passover sacrifice; Iyyar, because of the little Passover.[3] But when he arrived in Adar, he found that the sign of the zodiac was Pisces, and he said, “Now I shall be able to devour them like fish devouring one another” (Esther Rabbah 7; Targum Sheni 3) .[3]

Haman had 365 counselors, but the advice of none was as good as that of his wife Zeresh.[3] She caused Haman to build a gallows for Mordecai, assuring him that this was the only way he could conquer his enemy, since hitherto the righteous had always been saved from every other kind of death.[3] When God foresaw that Haman himself would be hanged on the gallows, he asked which tree would volunteer as an instrument of death. Any tree that declared it was being used for a holy purpose refused to be defiled by the unclean body of Haman. Only the thorn tree found no excuse and therefore offered itself as a gallows (Esther Rabbah 9; Midrash Abba Gorion 7 (ed. Buber, Wilna, 1886); this is told somewhat differently in Targum Sheni).

According to Targum Sheni, he killed the prophet Daniel, who managed to live until the reign of Ahasuerus (Targum Sheini on Esther, 4:11).

Quran [ edit ]

In the Qur’an (the main script of Islam), Haman (Arabic: هامان‎, romanized: Hāmān) is not a proper name but a title of the court official and high priest of the pharaoh and is associated with him in his court at the time of the Prophet Moses. McAuliffe’s Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, among other sources, refers to “Haman” as the Arabicized form of “Ha-Amana” in Egyptian.[20] This is consistent with Persian historical records, which contain no reference to the biblical history of a Persian official named Haman during this period, or to the person of Esther.

Haman appears six times throughout the Qur’an[21], four times with Pharaoh and twice alone[22] where God (Allah) sent Moses to invite Pharaoh, Haman and their people to monotheism and to seek protection from the Israelites and Haman tormented the pharaoh. Pharaoh called Moses a magician and a liar, rejected Moses’ call to worship the god Moses, and refused to deliver the Israelite children. Pharaoh commissioned Haman to build a high tower of baked bricks so that Pharaoh could climb up and see the god Moses. Pharaoh, Haman, and their chariots pursuing Israel’s fleeing children were drowned in the Red Sea as the divided waters approached them. The pharaoh’s submission to God at the moment of death and total destruction was rejected, but his body was preserved as a lesson for posterity and he was mummified.[23]

Haman asks Esther for mercy, by Pieter Lastman


Josephus mentions Haman in his Antiquities of the Jews. Josephus’ account of the story comes from the Septuagint translation of the Book of Esther and from other Greek and Jewish sources, some of which are extant.

Septuagint[ edit ]

The LXX calls Haman a “Macedonian” of Xerxes (see Esther 16:10). Scientists had two different explanations for this naming:

Macedonian was used to replace the word “Mede” and emphasizes this when he also says that there was no Persian blood in him. (In practice, the Persians and the Medes ruled an empire together, but there was much friction between them.) Another opinion is that Xerxes called him a Macedonian spy because he insisted on starting a civil war in Persia between the Jews and to cause the Persians.

The Septuagint translates the “hang” (Hebrew: ויתלו, lit. “to hang,” “hang”) of Esther 7:9–10 as “to crucify” or “to impale” (Ancient Greek: σταυρωθήτω, romanized: staurōthētō, lit. ‘to impale’) , using the same verb used later in the New Testament Gospel of Matthew. The 50-cubit apparatus used in the execution is ambiguously described by a word (Ancient Greek: ξύλον, romanized: xulon, literally “wood”) that could mean a tree, a club, a stave, a gallows, a gallows that vertical component of a cross for crucifixion or anything made of wood, an ambiguity already present in the original (Hebrew: העץ, lit. “tree”, “wood”).

Vulgate[ edit ]

Crucifixion of Haman by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel

As in the Septuagint, Haman’s execution is ambiguous, suggesting both hanging and crucifixion. The fifty-cubit object referred to in the Septuagint as Xylon (Ancient Greek: ξύλον, Romanized: xulon, literally “wood”) is similarly ambiguously referred to as “wood” (Latin: lignum). The Vulgate translation of Esther 7:10 also refers to a patibulum used elsewhere to describe the crosspiece at crucifixion when discussing the fate of Haman: suspensus est itaque Aman in patibulo quod paraverat Mardocheo , “Therefore Haman was hanged on the patibulum as he prepared himself for Mordecai.[24] In the corner of the Sistine Chapel ceiling is a fresco depicting the execution of Haman by Michelangelo; Haman is shown crucified in a manner similar to typical Catholic depictions of Jesus’ crucifixion, although the legs are spread and the apparatus resembles a natural tree, shorter than fifty cubits in height.

Bible in English[edit]

Translations of the description of Haman’s execution in the Book of Esther have treated the subject differently. Wycliffe’s Bible referred to both a tre (tree) and an iebat (gallows), while Coverdale’s preferred was galowe (gallows). The Geneva Bible used tree, but the King James Version established gallows and hanging as the most common depiction; the Douay-Rheims Bible later used gallows.[24] Young’s literal translation used tree and hanging. The New International Version, Common English Bible and New Living Translation all use impals for Hebrew: ויתלו and poles for Hebrew: העץ.[26][27]

As a god[edit]

Jacob Hoschander has argued that the name Haman and that of his father Hamedatha are mentioned by Strabo as Omanus and Anadatus worshiped with Anahita in the city of Zela. Hoschander suggests that if the connection is correct, Haman could be a priestly title and not a proper name. Strabo’s names are unconfirmed as gods in Persian texts; however, the Talmud[28] and Josephus[29] interpret the description of courtiers bowing to Haman at Esther 3:2 as worship. (Other scholars have suggested that “Omanus” refers to Vohu Mana.)[30][31][32]

Purim traditions[ edit ]

The Jewish holiday of Purim commemorates the story of the liberation of the Jews and the defeat of Haman. On that day the Book of Esther is read in public, and there is much noise and commotion at every mention of Haman’s name. Various noisemakers (grager) are used to express their contempt for Haman by “erasing” his name during Megillah recitation. Traditionally, pastries known as hamentashen (Yiddish for “Haman’s pockets”; known in Hebrew as אזני המן, ozney Haman, “Haman’s ears”) are traditionally eaten on this day.

In literature and popular culture[edit]

Dante’s Divine Comedy[edit]

Haman at the moment of his execution appears at the beginning of canto 17 of Purgatorio in Dante’s Divina Commedia. The image appears in the form of a spontaneous vision given to the figure of Dante as a pilgrim, the purpose of which is to introduce Haman’s accusers, Ahaseurus, Esther, and Mordecai, as symbols of righteous wrath. In this divinely inspired hallucination, the fictional Dante sees Haman as “un crucifisso”, a man being crucified.[33]

novels [edit]

Margaret Mitchell’s novel Gone with the Wind (1936) refers to Haman in the scene where Rhett Butler is in prison facing the prospect of being hanged.

The Agatha Christie novel, The Mysterious Affair At Styles, references Haman in a scene where Poirot, investigating a murder, says he will “hang him as high as Haman”.

Visual media[edit]

Haman is portrayed as the main antagonist in the South Park episode “Jewbilee” (1999), in which he attempts to reenter the mortal world to once again rule over the Jews. He is also credited as a sultan’s evil vizier in the “Aliyah-Din” segment of the television animation Scooby-Doo! in One Thousand and One Nights (1994). The character of Haman was also portrayed in the American feature film One Night with the King (2006), played by James Callis.

American children’s television animations that tell the biblical story of Haman include the “Queen Esther” episode of The Greatest Adventure: Stories from the Bible (1985-1992), in which he is voiced by Werner Klemperer, and the computer generated series VeggieTales (2000) in which he is portrayed by “Mr. Lunt” during the episode “Esther, the Maiden Who Became Queen”.


Notes [edit]

^ also ‘Ada ^ also Bizna’i ^ also Aphlitus ^ variants Djosim and Djosef ^ also Hamdan ^ also Talyon ^ also Atnisomos ^ also son of Harum, son of Harsum ^ also Genar


Who was the king of Amalekites?

According to another Midrash, Doeg the Edomite tried to extend the life of Agag, the king of the Amalekites-Edomites, by interpreting Lev. 22:28 into a prohibition against the destruction of both the old and the young in war (Midr.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

Agag (Hebrew: אֲגַג ʾĂgāg) is a Northwest Semitic name or title applied to a Biblical king. It has been suggested that “Agag” was a dynastic name of the kings of Amalek, just as pharaoh was used as a dynastic name for the ancient Egyptians.[2] The etymology is uncertain according to John L. McKenzie (1995)[3] while Cox (1884) suggested “high”.

In the Torah, the phrase “His king higher than Agag, and his kingdom exalted” was uttered by Balaam in Numbers 24:7 in his third prophetic utterance to describe a king of Israel who would be higher than the king of Amalek. This is understood to mean that Israel’s king would be in a higher position than even Amalek himself and would exercise broader authority. The author uses an allusion to the literal meaning of the word Agag, meaning “high,” to express that the king of Israel would be “higher than high.” A distinctive feature of Biblical poetry is the use of wordplay.

Agag also refers in the book of Samuel to the Amalekite king who survived King Saul’s campaign of extermination as punishment for the Amalekite crimes.[5] Saul failed to execute Agag and allowed the people to keep some of the spoils, and this led to Samuel’s proclamation of God’s rejection of Saul as king.[6] Agag was then executed by Samuel to punish him for his crime of “leaving children by the sword to women.”[7]

Views in Judaism[edit]

The rabbis taught that the Jews avenged Agag for the atrocities they suffered at the hands of the Amalekites, who, in order to mock the Israelites, their god and the rite of circumcision, mutilated every Jew who lived in their violence fell. Samuel is said to have treated Agag in the same way.[8] According to some authorities, the death of Agag, described in the Bible by the unusual word va-yeshassef (“cut in pieces,” 1 Samuel 15:33), was brought about in a far more cruel manner than the word designates. Others hold that the only unusual thing about Agag’s execution was that it was not carried out strictly in accordance with the provisions of Jewish law, which required witnesses to prove the crime; Nor had he been specifically “warned” as required by law. But since Agag was a pagan, Samuel condemned him according to the pagan law, which required only evidence of the crime for conviction (Pesiq. iii. 25b, Pesiq. R. xii. xiii. and the parallel passages in Pesiq. cited by Buber). The execution of Agag was too late, however, in one respect, for had he been killed a day earlier, that is, immediately after his capture by Saul, the great danger which Haman faced the Jews would have been averted, for Agag thereby became a progenitor of Haman (Megillah 13a, Targ. Sheni to Esth. iv. 13).

According to another Midrash, Doeg the Edomite tried to prolong the life of Agag, king of the Amalekite-Edomites, by interpreting Lev. 22:28 into a prohibition against the destruction of both old and young in war (Midr. Teh. lii. 4). Doeg is among those who, through their wickedness, have forfeited their share of the world to come (Sanh. x. 1; cf. ib. 109b). Doeg is an example of the evil consequences of slander, for by slandering the priests of Nob he lost his own life and caused the deaths of Saul, Abimelech and Abner (Yer. Peah i. 16a; Midr. Teh. cxx. 9 [ Ed. Buber, p. 504]).E. C.L.G.

When he received the command to slay Amalek (1 Sam. 15:3), Saul said: “For one found slain, the Torah requires a sin offering [Deut. Moses 21:1-9]; and here so many shall be slain the old have sinned why should the young suffer, and if men were guilty why should the cattle be destroyed? It was this mildness that cost him his crown (Yoma 22b; Num. R. i. 10) – the fact that he was merciful even to his enemies, indulgent even to the rebels, and frequently renounced the deference due to him. But if his mercy to an enemy was a sin, it was his only one; and it was his misfortune that it was counted against him, while David, though he had done much wrong, was so favored that it was not remembered to his detriment (Yoma 22b; M. Ḳ 16b and Rashi ad loc.) .

As harsh as the command to erase Amalek’s memory seems, its justification was seen in the kindness shown by King Saul son of Kish to Agag, king of the Amalekites (1 Samuel 15:9), which made it possible for Haman the Agagite appears (Esther 3:1); only another descendant of Kish, Mordecai (Pesiḳ. R. xiii.), could counteract his cruel conspiracy against the Jews. Therefore, every year the chapter “Remember what Amalek has done to you” (Deut. 25:17-19) is read in the synagogue on the Sabbath before Purim, and the story of Saul and Agag in chapter 15 of I Samuel is called Haftarah had read.

What does the word Amalekite mean in Hebrew?

: a member of an ancient nomadic people living south of Canaan.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

“Pride”: The word that went from vice to strength

are you proud of pride

What is God’s banner?

According to Strong’s Hebrew lexicon, the word “banner” in this verse refers to “a flag, a sail, a flag staff, a signal, a token.” While other nations’ armies would go into battles with their rallying flag, the Israelites would go with God’s presence as their Banner.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

Moses’ tone is one of gratitude and pride as he claims God as his God, acknowledging Him as the secret of his success and the reason for his victory. Back then, every nation had its own gods, and if a nation could subdue another nation and make its citizens its servants, they attributed this to the fact that their gods had to be stronger than the gods of the subjugated nation. Through the victories that God bestowed on the Israelites time and again, He showed them that there are no other gods besides Him or equal to Him. That is why Moses is essentially declaring here openly and joyfully, “God is my God and I am so proud to claim him as my God! He makes me triumph over every enemy, He is the one true God and He has all power!”

Finally, I believe that Moses calling God his banner was a statement of how dependent he was on God and how fundamental God’s presence was to his life. When a banner displays a slogan or motto, the words divided express the most central idea or message that a person, group, or entity is trying to communicate. By referring to God as the banner over his life, Moses acknowledged that his whole identity was found in and founded on God. His purpose in life was to know God, to see things from His perspective, and to do what God had called him to do. Moses realized that he was created by God for a relationship with God and for God’s purpose in life, just like we are.

Whether we realize it or not, our existence on this earth is not accidental or meaningless; We were created by God and placed in this world to fulfill His unique purpose for our lives. We cannot know the purpose of our life without God, and life outside of Him is meaningless. For me personally, God has become the foundation of my entire life since I began a relationship with Him at the age of 17. My purpose in existing in the world does not take place without Him and makes no sense without Him. But honestly, I’m not inclined to claim Him publicly with the boldness and enthusiasm that Moses claimed for God in Exodus 17:15. I’m not talking about being an obnoxious, Bible-bashing Christian who’s more irritating and energetic than effective when it comes to how he shares his faith. I just mean being a light in a dark world, walking in love and willing to share the peace, love and fulfillment I have found through a personal relationship with God.

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Since coming to the United States, where people have so many different backgrounds and beliefs, I’ve been much more private about my beliefs because I learned pretty early on in college that being free and often speaks about his faith. Additionally, because the US is so diverse and people have different beliefs, you are more likely to offend someone’s religious sensibilities, which is not the case in Nigeria, where I grew up, where people in the northern region of the Practicing Country Devotedly Islamism and the people of the southern region (where I lived) are devout Christians.

This journey to gain a deeper understanding of Solomon 2:4 has led me to realize that God lays claim to us, takes pride in saying we belong to Him, and loudly proclaims, “I love you !” over us for a lifetime. Speaking for myself, God has claimed me and claimed me, sustained me and carried me throughout my life. I, on the other hand, wasn’t quick to claim Him publicly because it’s not considered “cool” in society to say that you’re a Christian and you talk about God most of the time. But like everyone else, God wants his love to be appreciated, returned, and prioritized. Jesus even said:

25 What is the use of gaining the whole world and yet losing or forfeiting himself? 26 Whoever is ashamed of me and my words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when he comes in his glory and in the glory of the Father and the holy angels (Luke 9:25-26).

This is not a “threat” made by Jesus and is not intended to incite guilt; it is intended to encourage self-examination as to where our priorities lie. There are many “gods” out there that people are looking for (money, power, sex, status, celebrity, romantic love, acceptance/praise, autonomy/sufficiency, etc.), and everyone worships something whether they realize it or not . Although I’ve had a serious relationship with God since I was 17, I haven’t been as open about my love for Him as He was about His love for me. I know he’s number one in my life, but I haven’t always prioritized him at every stage of life.

What do the Jebusites represent in the Bible?

Biblical narrative

The Hebrew Bible describes the Jebusites as dwelling in the mountains besides Jerusalem. In Exodus, the “good and large land, flowing with milk and honey” which was promised to Moses as the future home of the oppressed Hebrew people included the land of the Jebusites.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

Tribe of ambiguous ethnic origin described in the Bible

The Jebusites (Hebrew: יְבוּסִי, modern: Yevūsī, Tiberian: Yəḇūsī ISO 259-3 Ybusi), according to the books of Joshua and Samuel of the Tanakh, were a Canaanite tribe inhabiting Jerusalem, then called Jebus (Hebrew: יְבוּס). ‎ Yəḇūs, “trampled place”) before the conquest initiated by Joshua (Joshua 11:3, Joshua 12:10) and completed by King David (2 Samuel 5:6-10), although a majority of scholars agree that the book of Joshua has little historical value for early Israel and most likely reflects a much later period. The Books of Kings and 1 Chronicles state that before this event Jerusalem was known as Jebus (1 Chronicles 11:4). The identification of Jebus with Jerusalem is sometimes disputed by scholars. According to some biblical chronologies, the city was founded in 1003 BC. conquered by King David.

Identification of Jebus[ edit ]

The identification of Jebus with Jerusalem[4] is controversial, mainly by Niels Peter Lemche. Any non-Biblical mention of Jerusalem in the ancient Near East that supports its case refers to the city as “Jerusalem.” An example of these records are the Amarna letters, several of which were written by the chief of Jerusalem Abdi-Heba, calling Jerusalem either Urusalim (URUú-ru-sa-lim) or Urušalim (URUú-ru-ša 10-lim) call) (1330 BC).[5] Also in the Amarna letters it is called Beth-Shalem, the house of Shalem.[6]

The Sumero-Akkadian name for Jerusalem, uru-salim,[7] is variously etymologized to mean “foundation [or: by] the god Shalim”: from Hebrew/Semitic yry, “found, lay a cornerstone,” and Shalim, who Canaanite god of the setting sun and the underworld as well as health and perfection.[8][9][10][11]

lemche says:

There is no evidence for Jebus and the Jebusites outside of the Old Testament. Some scholars hold that Jebus is a different place from Jerusalem; other scholars prefer to see the name Jebus as some sort of pseudo-ethnic name with no historical background.

Theophilus G. Pinches has on a treaty tablet from 2200 BC.


The Hebrew Bible contains the only surviving ancient text known to use the term Jebusites to describe the pre-Israelite inhabitants of Jerusalem; according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis (Genesis 10), the Jebusites are identified as a Canaanite tribe, listed third among the Canaanite groups between the Biblical Hittites and the Amorites. Prior to modern archaeological studies, most Bible scholars held that the Jebusites were identical with the Hittites, which is still the case, albeit less so.[14] However, an increasingly popular view, first advanced by Edward Lipinski, Professor of Oriental and Slavic Studies at the Catholic University of Leuven, is that the Jebusites were most likely an Amorite tribe; Lipinski identified them with the group referred to as the Yabusi’um in a cuneiform letter found in the archives of Mari, Syria. Lipinski also suggested that more than one clan or tribe bore similar names and that the Jebusites and Yabusi’um may therefore have been entirely separate people.

The Amarna letters mention that the contemporary king of Jerusalem was called Abdi-Heba, which is a theophoric name invoking a Hurrian mother goddess named Hebat. This implies that the Jebusites were either Hurrians themselves, or were heavily influenced by Hurrian culture, or were dominated by a Hurrian Maryannu class (i.e., an elite Hurrian warrior class).[17] Furthermore, the last Jebusite king of Jerusalem, Araunah/Arawna/Awarna (or Ornan),[18] bore a name that is commonly understood to be based on the Hurrian honorary Evir.[19]

Richard Hess[20] (1997:34–6) points to four Hurrian names in the biblical account of the conquest: Piram, king of Jarmuth, and Hoham, king of Hebron (Jos 10:3), and Sheshai and Talmai, sons from Anak (Jos 15:14) with Hurrian names.

Biblical narrative[edit]

The Hebrew Bible describes the Jebusites as living in the mountains near Jerusalem.[21] In Exodus, the “good and great land flowing with milk and honey” promised to Moses as the future homeland of the oppressed Hebrew people included the land of the Jebusites.[22] According to the Book of Joshua, Adonisedek led a confederacy of Jebusites and the tribes from the neighboring cities of Jarmut, Lachish, Eglon, and Hebron against Joshua,[23] but was thoroughly defeated and killed.

However, Joshua 15:63 states that Judah could not drive out the Jebusites who lived in Jerusalem (“to this day the Jebusites live there with the people of Judah”). Judges 1:21 portrays the Jebusites as continuing to dwell in Jerusalem, within territory otherwise occupied by the tribe of Benjamin.

Most modern archaeologists [who?] now believe that the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites under Joshua did not represent an external invasion, but that the Israelites arose as a subculture within Canaanite society. [page needed] [25] Some Bible scholars [who ?] believe that the accounts in the book of Joshua, written about 600 B.C. A collection of folk reminiscences of various conflicts that occurred over a period of over 200 years (8th to 7th centuries BC) ][14]

According to 2 Samuel, the Jebusites were still in control of Jerusalem by the time of King David, but David wanted to take control of the city. Understandably, the Jebusites denied his attempt to do so, and since Jebus was the strongest fortress in Canaan, they rejoiced that even the blind and lame could withstand David’s siege.[26] According to the version of the story in the Masoretic text, David managed to take the city by surprise attack led by Joab through the water supply tunnels (Jerusalem has no natural water supply other than the Gihon spring). Since its discovery in the 19th century, Warren’s Shaft, part of a system linking the spring to the town, has been cited as evidence of the plausibility of such a line of attack; However, the discovery of a series of heavy fortifications, including towers, around the base of the Warren’s Shaft system and source around the turn of the 21st century has led archaeologists to believe that line of attack is now unlikely to be an attack against one of the most heavily fortified parts , and hardly a surprise. The 1 Chronicles account mentions the advantage of a swift attack but does not mention the use of the water wells [28], and according to many textual scholars [who?] the claim in the Masoretic text could simply be a clerical error; The Septuagint version of the passage states that the Israelites had to attack the Jebusites with their daggers instead of through the water shaft.

The Books of Kings state that after Jerusalem became an Israelite city, the surviving Jebusites were forced into serfdom by Solomon;[29] although some archaeologists believe that the Israelites were simply an emerging subculture in Canaanite society it is possible that this is the case is an etiological explanation for serfs rather than a historically correct one. What ultimately became of these Jebusites is unknown.

However, according to the “Jebusite Hypothesis,”[30] the Jebusites continued to be residents of Jerusalem and constituted an important faction in the kingdom of Judah, including figures such as Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, and Bathsheba, the queen and mother of the next monarch Solomon. According to this hypothesis, after the disgrace of a rival Elide priestly faction in the struggle to succeed David,[31] the family of Zadok became the only authorized Jerusalem clergy, such that a Jebusite family many centuries earlier monopolized the Jerusalem clergy to be muted enough to be sufficiently subdued by others to be indistinguishable from Judaeans or Judaites.

The first book of chronicles states that the people of Jebus forbade King David to come to Jerusalem soon after he became king. Joab went up first and took the city and became chief and captain of David’s army.[32]

Persons mentioned in the Bible[ edit ]

Melchizedek[ edit ]

Jerusalem is referred to as Salem rather than Jebus in the Genesis passages describing Melchizedek.[14] According to Genesis, the ruler of Salem in the time of Abraham was Melchizedek (also Melchizedeq), and that he was not only a ruler but also a priest. Medieval French Rabbi Rashi believed that Melchizedek was another name for Shem son of Noah, despite Abraham’s alleged descent from Shem’s son Arphaxad. Joshua is later described as defeating a Jebusite king named Adonisedek. The first parts of their names mean king and lord respectively, but the Tzedek part can be translated as righteous (making the names my king is righteous and my lord is righteous). However, scholars are uncertain whether Melchizedek himself should be understood in the Genesis account as a Jebusite and not as a member of another group in charge of Jerusalem before the Jebusites.

Melchizedek was likely associated, both as priest and king, with a sanctuary likely dedicated to Zedek, and scholars suggest that the Temple of Solomon was simply a natural progression from that sanctuary.

Araunah[ edit ]

Another Jebusite, Araunah (referred to as Ornan in the books of Chronicles) is described in the books of Samuel as having sold his threshing floor to King David, upon which David then built an altar, implying that the altar was the core of which became the temple of Solomon. Araunah means the Lord in Hittite, and so most scholars have argued that Araunah could have been another king of Jerusalem, considering the Jebusites to be Hittites; Some scholars also believe that Adonijah is actually a disguised reference to Araunah, with the ר(r) corrupted to ד(d). [34] [Better source needed] The argument comes from Cheyne, who, prior to knowing the Hittite language, suggested the opposite. The narrative itself is considered by some scholars to be etiological and of dubious historicity.[26]

The Jebusite Hypothesis[ edit ]

Some scholars have speculated that Zadok (also Zadoq) appears only after the conquest of Jerusalem in the text of Samuel, he was actually a Jebusite priest who was co-opted into the Israelite state religion. Harvard Divinity School professor Frank Moore Cross calls this theory the “Jebusite hypothesis,” criticizing it at length, but calling it the dominant view among contemporary scholars,[35] in Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History the religion of Israel.

Elsewhere in the Bible[37] the Jebusites are described in a way that suggests they worshiped the same God (El Elyon – Ēl ‘Elyōn) as the Israelites (see e.g. Melchizedek). Further support for this theory comes from the fact that other Jebusites living in pre-Israelite Jerusalem bore names invoking the principle or god Zedek (Tzedek) (see, e.g., Melchizedek and Adonizedek). According to this theory, the Aaronic line attributed to Zadok is a later, anachronistic interpolation.[38]

Classic Rabbinic Perspectives

According to classic rabbinic literature, the Jebusites derived their name from the city of Jebus, ancient Jerusalem, in which they lived.[14] These rabbinic sources also argued that as part of the price of Abraham’s purchase of the Cave of the Patriarchs (Cave of Machpelah), which was in Jebusite territory, the Jebusites required a covenant from Abraham that his descendants would not take control of Jebus against the will of the Jebusites, and then the Jebusites engraved the covenant in bronze;[14] the sources state that the presence of the bronze statues is the reason the Israelites could not conquer the city during Joshua’s campaign.[14]

The rabbis of the classical era go on to explain that King David was prevented from entering the city of Jebus for the same reason, and so he promised anyone who destroyed the bronzes the centurion’s reward – Joab completed the task and thus won the prize. [14] The covenant is voided by the rabbis because of the war the Jebusites were waging against Joshua, but nevertheless (according to the rabbis) David paid the Jebusites the full value of the city and collected the money from all the Israelite tribes so that the city became their joint property.[14]

Referring to 2 Samuel 5:6, which refers to a proverb about the blind and the lame, Rashi quotes a Midrash arguing that the Jebusites had two statues in their city whose mouths spelled out the words of the covenant between Abraham and the Jebusites contained Jebusites; one figure depicting a blind person represented Isaac and the other depicting a lame person represented Jacob.[14]

Modern use[edit]

Politicians Yasser Arafat[39] and Faisal Husseini[40], among others, have claimed that the Palestinian Arabs are descended from the Jebusites in an attempt to argue that the Palestinians have a historical claim to Jerusalem that predates the Jewish one, similar to the more common Palestinian Arabs claim descent from the Canaanites. Thus, the 1978 Al-Mawsu’at Al-Filastinniya (Palestinian Encyclopedia) asserted: “The Palestinians [are] the descendants of the Jebusites, who are of Arab origin,” and described Jerusalem as “an Arab city because it was its first builders.” the Canaanite Jebusites, whose descendants are the Palestinians.”[41][better source needed]

There is no historical, genetic, cultural, or archaeological evidence to support claims of Jebusi-Palestinian continuity.[42] [better source needed] Professor Eric H. Cline of the George Washington University Department of Anthropology claims that there is a general consensus among historians and archaeologists that modern Palestinians are “more closely related to the Arabs of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Jordan and other countries” than with the Jebusites, and that they lack any significant connection.[43] The late Johns Hopkins University professor William F. Albright questioned “the surprising persistence” of the “myth of the unchanging East” and rejected any claim of continuity between the “folk beliefs and practices of modern peasants and nomads” and “pre-Arab “ back times.”[44]

See also[edit]


What is the meaning of ziklag in the Bible?

Ziklag (Hebrew: צִקְלַג) is the biblical name of a town that was located in the Negev region in the south-west of what was the Kingdom of Judah. It was a provincial town within the Philistine kingdom of Gath when Achish was king. Its exact location has not been identified with any certainty.

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

Ziklag (Hebrew: צִקְלַג‎) is the biblical name of a city located in the Negev region in the southwest of the former kingdom of Judah. When Achish was king, it was a provincial city in the Philistine kingdom of Gath.[1] Its exact location has not been identified with certainty.

Identification[ edit ]

At the end of the 19th century, both Haluza (near Wadi Asluj, south of Beersheba)[2] and Khirbet Zuheiliqah (northwest of Beersheba and south-southeast of Gaza City) were suggested as possible sites.[3] [4] Khirbet Zuheiliqah was identified by Conder and Kitchener as the location since Ziklag is a corruption of Zahaliku, whence Zuheiliqah.[2]

The more recently proposed identifications for Ziklag are:

In the Bible[edit]

The original Philistine base[ edit ]

The Book of Genesis (Genesis 10:14) refers to Casluhim as the origin of the Philistines. Bible scholars consider this to be a namesake rather than an individual, and it is thought possible that the name is a corruption of Halusah; with the identification of Ziklag as Haluza, this suggests that Ziklag was the original base from which the Philistines conquered the rest of their territory.[2] It has also been suggested that Ziklag later became the capital of the Cherethites.[2]

Tribal allocation[ edit ]

In the lists of cities of the Israelites by tribe in the book of Joshua, Ziklag appears both as a city belonging to the tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:31) and as a city belonging to the tribe of Simeon (Joshua 19:5 ). Textual scholars believe these lists were originally independent administrative documents, not necessarily of the same period, and thus reflecting changing tribal boundaries.[3]

David receives Philistine Ziklag[edit]

1 Samuel 30 asserts that the city was under Philistine control at the time of David, but was later handed over to David by its king, Achish, who at the time appeared to be acting as a Philistine vassal. David asked for “a place in one of the country towns” and was given Ziklag, which he used as a base for raids against the Geshurites, the Girzites, and the Amalekites[14] which he conducted outside of the supervision of Achish. fifteen] David’s reports to Achish state that he had conducted raids on Saul’s lands in southern Judah and on the Jerahmeelites.

Bible scholars argue that the city was probably on the eastern edge of Philistine territory and that it was natural for it to be annexed by Judah when David became king.[16] Since the creation of the Book of Joshua is considered late by textual scholars, probably thanks to Deuteronomy, it is possible that the tribal attributions it contains date after this annexation rather than before it.[16]

David and the Amalekites[edit]

According to 1 Samuel 30, Ziklag was attacked by Amalekites while David was encamped with the Philistine army for an attack on the kingdom of Israel; the Amalekites burned the city and captured its people without killing them (scholars believe this capture refers to enslavement). However, none of the archaeological sites proposed as Ziklag show any evidence of destruction during the Davidic era.[17]

In the narrative, when David’s men discovered that their families had been captured, they became angry with David, but after seeking divination from the ephod Abiathar possessed, David managed to persuade them to join him in pursuit the kidnapper joining the prophecy was auspicious. Six hundred men went in pursuit, but a third of them were too exhausted to go further than the brook HaBezor. They found an abandoned and starving slave who used to belong to one of the Amalekites who raided Ziklag, and after giving him fig cake, raisin cake and water, they persuaded him to lead them to the Amalekite raiders. The slave led them to the kidnappers’ camp and found that the kidnappers were having a feast and celebrating because of the size of their booty. David’s forces fought with them for a night and a day and eventually became victorious.

Textual scholars attribute this narrative to the monarchical source of the Books of Samuel; the competing source, known as the Republican source (so-called because of its negative portrayal of David, Saul, and other kings), does not appear at first glance to contain a similar narrative. The same narrative position is occupied in the Republican source by the story of Nabal[18] who lived in the region south of Hebron (which includes the Negev).[16] There are some similarities between the narratives, including David leading an army in revenge (for Nabal’s unwillingness to give David food), with 400 leading the army and 200 falling behind[16] and David winning Abigail as a wife (although he recovers them in the Ziklag tale), as well as several supplies and a merry feast in the enemy camp (i.e. Nabal’s property). However, there are also some differences, such as B. the victory and supplies achieved by Abigail’s peaceful actions rather than a heroic victory by David, with the 200 staying behind to protect baggage rather than exhaustion, with the main supporting character being the enemy’s wife ( Nabal) and not their former slave, David’s troops uniting by virgins rather than their wives, and Nabal and not the Amalekites who are the enemy. [citation required]

The books of Samuel go on to mention that as a result the people kidnapped by the Amalekites were released and the spoils the Amalekites captured, including cattle, and spoils from attacks elsewhere were divided among David’s men, including the third who remained at Bezor. This decision that those who stayed behind would also receive a share is referred to in the text as David’s answer to those who believed that only the two-thirds of David’s men who fought the Amalekites should receive a reward. A similar rule is found in the Priests’ Code (Numbers 31:27) and Joshua 22:8. Scholars [who?] believe that these judgments derive from the decision regarding the booty of the Amalekites and not vice versa.[16]

According to the text, after returning to Ziklag, David sent portions of the spoils to the various church leaders in Judah. the text lists the locations of the recipients, but they are all just inside the Negev.[16]

See also[edit]

Days of Ziklag, novel by Israeli author S. Yizhar



Pray against the spirit of Amalek Christina Robinson

Pray against the spirit of Amalek Christina Robinson
Pray against the spirit of Amalek Christina Robinson

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Prayer for the saints to rise up to deal with Amalek, the flesh, that the church may be built up

Pray for the saints to rise up to wage the spiritual warfare against Amalek the flesh to deal with this enemy against God’s kingdom through predominant prayer so that God’s kingdom may come and the body of Christ be built up ( Ex.17:8-9; Gal.5:24).

Exo. 17:8-9 – Then Amalek came and fought with Israel in Repidim. And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose men for us, and go forth; Battle with Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand.

Gal. 5:24 – But those who are of Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and its lusts.

For more information, see Life-study of Exodus, msg. 47, pp. 542-543.


Nation and a character described in the Hebrew Bible

“Amalekites” redirects here. For Amalekites in the Book of Mormon, see Amalekites (Book of Mormon)

Collection by Phillip Medhurst depicting Joshua fighting Amalek (Exodus 17).

Amalek (;[1] Hebrew: עֲמָלֵק‎, ‘Ămālēq, Arabic: عماليق ‘Amālīq) was a nation described in the Hebrew Bible as a staunch enemy of the Israelites. The name “Amalek” may refer to the nation’s founder, a grandson of Esau; his descendants, the Amalekites; or the areas of Amalek in which they inhabited.

Etymology[ edit ]

In some rabbinical interpretations, Amalek is etymologized as am lak, “a people who lick (blood)”,[2] but most specialists consider the origin unknown.[3]

Amalekites in the Hebrew Bible[ edit ]

According to the Bible, Amalek was the son of Eliphaz (himself the son of Esau, the ancestor of the Edomites) and Eliphaz’s concubine Timna. Timna was a Horite and sister of Lotan.[4] Amalek is described as “chief of Amalek” among the “chiefs of the sons of Esau”[5], suggesting that he ruled a clan or territory named after him.

The Amalekites ([6]) were considered descendants of Amalek through the genealogy of Esau. In the oracle of Balaam, Amalek was called “the first of the nations.”[8] A modern scholar believes this testifies to Amalek’s great age,[9] while the traditional commentator Rashi states, “He came before them all to make war with Israel.”[10] Roman-Jewish scholar and historian Flavius First-century Josephus refers to Amalek as a “bastard” (νόθος) in a derogatory sense.[11]

According to the Bible, the Amalekites inhabited the Negev.[12] They appear to have lived a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle on the fringes of the agricultural zone of southern Canaan. This is probably due to this tribal group’s association with the steppe region of ancient Israel and the area of ​​Kadesh (Genesis 14:7).

As a people, the Amalekites were identified as recurring enemies of the Israelites. This role appears in several stories:

Alternative theories of origin[edit]

Gustave Doré, The Death of Agag. “Agag” was possibly the hereditary name of the Amalekite kings. The one pictured was killed by “Agag” was possibly the hereditary name of the Amalekite kings. The sitter was killed by Samuel (1 Samuel 15).

In Genesis 14:7 the “field of the Amalekites” is mentioned even though the person Amalek was not yet born.

Some commentators explain this by referring to the area later inhabited by the Amalekites.[19] C. Knight elaborates on this concept through a comparison: one might say “Caesar went to France”, although Gaul was not known as France until later.

Alternatively, during the Islamic Golden Age, certain Arabic scriptures claimed that the Amalekites existed long before Abraham. Some Muslim historians claimed that the Amalekites who fought Joshua were descendants of the inhabitants of North Africa. Ibn-Arabshah claimed that Amalek was a descendant of Ham the son of Noah. However, it is possible that the name Amalek was given to two different nations. The Arabs mention Imlik, Amalik or Ameleka among the aborigines of Arabia, whose remnants mixed with the descendants of Qahtan (Joktan) and Adnan and became mostarabs or mocarabes, that is, Arabs mixed with foreigners.

In the 19th century, Western theologians strongly supported the idea that the nation of Amalek could have flourished before the time of Abraham. Matthew George Easton advocated that the Amalekites were not descendants of Amalek, addressing Genesis 14:7 verbatim. However, modern biblical scholar David Freedman uses textual analysis to establish that the use of Amalekite in Genesis 14:7 is in fact an anachronism, and in the early 19th century Richard Watson counted several speculative reasons for an “elder Amalek” than Abraham.

In the exegesis of Numbers 24:20 regarding Balaam’s saying: “Amalek was the first of the nations, but his end after that will be even his downfall,” Richard Watson attempts to relate this passage to “the first of the nations” after the tide developed. According to Samuel Cox, the Amalekites were “first” in their hostility towards the Israelites.

Historicity[ edit ]

Although Egyptian and Assyrian monumental inscriptions and records from this period survive, listing various tribes and peoples of the region, no reference to Amalek or the Amalekites has ever been found. Hence the archaeologist and historian Hugo Winckler conjectured in 1895 that such people never existed and that the biblical stories about them are entirely mythological and ahistorical.[24] While considerable knowledge of nomadic Arabs has been gained through archaeological research, no specific artifacts or sites have been associated with Amalek with certainty. However, it is possible that some of the fortified settlements in the Negev highlands and even Tel Masos (near Beer-Sheba) have Amalek connections.

Jewish traditions[ edit ]

According to a Midrash, Amalek’s mother, Timna, was a princess who had attempted to convert to Judaism but had been rejected by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. She replied that she would rather be a maid to the dregs of that nation than be the mistress of another nation; to punish the patriarchs for the offense they had inflicted on her, she was made the mother of Amalek, whose descendants would bring much grief to Israel.[26][27]

According to the Midrash, the Amalekites were sorcerers who could transform themselves into animals to avoid capture. Thus at 1 Samuel 15:3 it was deemed necessary to destroy the cattle in order to destroy Amalek.[28]

In Judaism, the Amalekites became the archetypal enemy of the Jews. In Jewish folklore, the Amalekites are considered a symbol of evil.

Only Masalha, Elliot Horowitz, and Josef Stern suggest that the Amalekites now represent an “eternal implacable enemy” who seeks to murder Jews, that in post-biblical times Jews sometimes associate contemporary enemies with Haman or Amalekites, and that some Jews believe in preemptive violence against such enemies is acceptable.[29] Groups identified with Amalek include the Romans, Nazis, Stalinists, ISIS, and warmongering Iranian leaders like Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[30][31]

Metaphorically, to some Hasidic rabbis (particularly the Baal Shem Tov), Amalek represents atheism, or rejection of God.

During the Purim festival, the Book of Esther is read to commemorate the salvation of the Jewish people from Haman, who plotted to kill all Jews in the Persian Empire. It is common for the audience to make noise and shout at the mention of “Haman” to profane his name based on Exodus 17:14. It is also customary to recite Deuteronomy 25:17–18 (see below) on the Shabbat before Purim. This was because Haman was considered an Amalekite, although that designation is more symbolic than literal.[32][33][34]

Commandment to exterminate the Amalekites[edit]

bids [edit]

In Judaism, three of the 613 mitzvot (commandments) involve Amalek: to remember what the Amalekites did to the Israelites, not to forget what the Amalekites did to the Israelites, and to destroy the Amalekites completely. The rabbis derived these from Deuteronomy 25:17-18, Exodus 17:14 and 1 Samuel 15:3. Rashi explains the third commandment:

From man to woman, from suckling to suckling, from ox to sheep, so that the name Amalek is not even mentioned in relation to an animal, saying, “This animal belonged to Amalek.”

As enumerated by Maimonides, the three mitzvahs state:

598 Deut. 25:17 – Remember what Amalek did to the Israelites

599 German 25:19 – Destroy the descendants of Amalek

600 Germans 25:19 – Not forgetting Amalek’s atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt to the desert

Some commentators have debated the ethical flaws in the command to exterminate all Amalekites, including specifically the command to kill children and the presumption of collective punishment.[35][36][37][38] It has also been described as genocide, according to genocide scholars such as Norman Naimark.[39][40][41][42]

Religious and modern scientific discourse

The commandment to kill Amalekites is not practiced by contemporary Jews based on the argument that Sennacherib deported and mixed the nations so that it is no longer possible to determine who is an Amalekite. For example, Rabbi Hayim Palaggi said:

We can rely on the maxim that in ancient times Sennacherib confused the lineage of many nations.[43]

Furthermore, many rabbinic authorities held that the commandment applied only to a Jewish king or organized community and could not be performed by an individual.[44] According to Haggahot Maimuniyyot, the commandment applies only in the future messianic era and not in the present; this limitation is almost a consensus among medieval authorities.[45]

Maimonides explains that the commandment to destroy the nation of Amalek requires the Jewish people to peacefully demand that they take upon themselves the seven laws of Noah and pay a tax to the Jewish kingdom. Only if they refuse do they have to be physically killed.[46]

Furthermore, according to the Hebrew Bible, the Amalekites became extinct as a physical nation by the time of Hezekiah’s reign.[47]

Some authorities have ruled that the order never involved killing Amalekites. R’ Samson Raphael Hirsch said that the command was to destroy “the memory of Amalek” rather than the actual Amalekites; [48] ​​the Sfat Emet said that the command was to hate Amalek completely instead of taking any action; [49] and the Chofetz Chaim said that God would perform the elimination of Amalek, and the Jews are commanded only to remember what Amalek did to them.[50]

Theologian Charles Ellicott explains that the Amalekites in the Book of Samuel were subjected to the Cherem for the purpose of incapacitation because of their “accursed” nature and the threat they posed to the commonwealth of surrounding nations. [51] John Gill also describes the Cherem as an example of the application of the Law of Retribution.[52]

According to Christian Hofreiter, historically almost all Christian authorities and theologians have interpreted the Herem passages as referring to real, historical events when God commanded the Israelites to exterminate all members of certain nations. He states that “there is virtually no historical evidence that anyone in the Great Church” took it as pure allegory. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, and John Calvin in particular have extensively defended a literal reading of these passages. Origen of Alexandria is sometimes quoted as having considered the Herem passages allegorically; Hofreiter argues that although Origen saw a spiritual interpretation as paramount for Christians, he did not dispute that the Herem passages describe historical events.[53]

See also[edit]

Why Did God Command Saul to Eliminate the Amalekites?

Last week Pastor Andrew spoke about the case of Saul and had to deal with 1 Samuel 15:3. This verse records the words of God to Saul through the prophet Samuel: “Now go and attack the Amalekites and destroy everything they have. Don’t spare her. Kill men and women, suckling and suckling,[1] oxen and sheep, camels and donkeys.” The immediate reaction of most people, non-Christian and Christian alike, is to ask, “How could God command this? I don’t know if I want to believe in a God who does such things.” And many have departed from the faith because of such things. Indeed, death should not gladden our hearts. Even God’s judgment of evil should bring sorrow with the joy of righteousness. God says, “I have no delight in the death of the wicked, but in the wicked turning from his way and living” (Ezek. 33:11). Our heart attitude should be the same.

But since many of you may still have questions, I wanted to summarize one of the best thoughts on the subject. It comes from the renowned Old Testament scholar Christopher J.H. Wright in his book The God I Don’t Understand: Reflections on Tough Questions of Faith. It is a masterful work, well thought out and not cold, academic prose. Rather, Wright humanely admits that these areas still trouble him. But he is sure that Christians can find solace in fitting these questions into the grand narrative of Scripture. I can’t fit everything I want from his chapters into this blog, so I highly recommend checking out the book.

Wright’s primary focus is on the Israelite conquest of the Canaanites, which ended somewhat with Joshua, but Saul’s struggle with the Amalekites certainly fits into the scheme as it is a later extension of the struggle for peace in the Promised Land. Wright offers that there are three common “explanatory guideposts” that people use to ignore the weight of these commandments from God, but he proves these objections to be insufficient and gives three frameworks that we can use to explain to help us bear the full weight of what has occurred. I’ll look at the most common explanations here, and then summarize all three of Wright’s frameworks.

Explain-Away #1: It’s an Old Testament problem that the New Testament sets right

You will hear many people say they don’t like the God of the Old Testament; he is very angry and furious. The God of the new, revealed in Christ, is all peaceful and loving. Wright shows that this is false because the OT is not only often referred to by God as loving, compassionate, and willing to be merciful (e.g. Gen. 18; Ex. 34:6-7; Ps. 103:8- 14;145:9). , 13, 17; Jer. 31:3, 20; hos 3:1), but the New Testament – especially Jesus – is not afraid to speak of God’s judgment (e.g. Matthew 10:15, 13:40-42, 18:34, 22:13, 25 :41). Take this illustrative passage from Hebrews 10:26-31:

For if we continue to sin intentionally after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remains no sacrifice for sins, but a dreadful expectation of judgment and the fury of a fire that will consume the adversaries. Anyone who disobeyed the Mosaic Law died without mercy based on the testimony of two or three witnesses. How much worse punishment do you think one deserves who has trampled upon the Son of God, who has considered profaned the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and who has offended the Spirit of grace? For we know the one who said: “Vengeance is mine; I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” It is a terrible thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

This argument of changing God’s attitude from one testament to the next cannot hold water. Wright quotes Bible scholar John Wenham, who summarizes things well:

It is fallacious to view this as essentially an Old Testament problem and to contrast the “bloodthirsty” Old Testament with the “gentle” New Testament. The phenomenon may be grosser in the Old Testament than in the New, but the New Testament is the more terrible of the two, for the Old Testament seldom speaks of anything but temporal judgments. . . while the Son of Man in the Gospels pronounces eternal punishment.

So there’s really no way around this. 1 Samuel is a historical narrative that attempts to establish the truth of what really happened. Anyone who is serious about the Bible being God’s Word will believe that God both commanded Saul to destroy the Amalekites and empowered him to achieve victory. The weight is heavy; So how do we wear it?

The Framework of Old Testament History

Many of us today would like to equate what happened in the OT with the Holy Wars of the Crusades and the genocide of ethnic cleansing in South Africa, but the Canaanite conquest was unique. This was a Yahweh war. These were not just enemies of Israel, but enemies of God. God was the “Supreme Commander” and He decided how to deal with the people and the spoils of war because it was His own war being waged through human agents (in this case Saul and his army). In fact, after these wars, they came to be viewed as an act of God (Ps. 44). These wars were a unique act of God to fulfill His promises to Abraham and the Israelites. These wars were limited and are in no way meant to be a model for God’s people after they have settled in the promised land, or for God’s New Testament people.

The Framework of God’s Sovereign Justice

To understand much of these dealings, one must understand God’s covenants with His people. He made a covenant with Abraham to give his people the promised land. But it would not be before the “fourth generation” because “the iniquity of the Amorites has not yet reached its full measure” (Genesis 15:16). God knew that the people of Canaan would remain in their sin, but He would not yet judge them because their sin had not yet reached the level that He was willing to judge. There are many mysteries here, but I think we need to understand that God never commanded the Israelites to attack peoples whom He did not consider morally right because of the sheer wickedness of their actions. In this we must trust God.

This brings us to the special situation of the Amalekites. Their story is that they attacked Israel from behind without provocation just as they crossed the Red Sea, and went to war with them. Because of these and their many other sins, God vowed to blot them out from under heaven (Exodus 17:14). Moses also reminded the people that once they settled in the promised land, they were to wipe out the Amalekites (Deuteronomy 25:17-19). Again, if we do not trust that God is just and would not do such a thing until a people had reached a certain level of wickedness, then we will not be satisfied, but this is the God the Bible portrays. As Pastor Andrew said, this was not genocide, this was divine judgment. There was no wrong in God when He commanded Saul to do this.

The framework of God’s plan of salvation

Finally, we must remember the overarching narrative of Scripture to see these things properly. God’s plan in his covenant with Abraham was that his people would receive the promised land and all nations would be blessed through him (Genesis 15). These wars were waged by God in pursuit of this goal. But in an unexpected turn came the promised Seed of Abraham, that is Jesus Christ, against whom war was waged because of all the fulness of sin the nations had accumulated. Every nation should be struck down by God’s angels because of their wickedness, but it was laid on Jesus Christ as a sacrifice for those who put their trust in His life, death and resurrection. And those who believe are now grafted into the promises made to Abraham, and therefore people of every tribe, tongue and nation are blessed through Christ the son of David, the son of Abraham. Thus were the nations blessed through Abraham.

Evil and its due death should grieve us, but let us never stop praising God for his righteousness. His love is wrapped in his righteousness; Judgment came upon Christ that we might be the beloved people of God.

-Alex Nolette (Community Groups/Equip Coordinator)

[1] Read this article by Dr. Albert Mohler and Dr. Daniel Akin on the issue of child salvation: /

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